Plagiarism Guidelines

1. Preamble

In the wake of fundamental improvements being introduced in the system of Higher Education in Pakistan, the credit, respect, recognition of research and scholarly publications, career development and financial gains are now linked with such original works accomplished without replicating the efforts of other researchers. It has therefore become necessary that the menace of plagiarism is highlighted and curbed through exemplary punitive actions. On the other hand, we must also guard against bogus or false complaints in order to prevent victimization which may make researchers and scholars shy away from research simply because of the fear of prosecution. A Plagiarism Policy has therefore become necessary to create awareness, define various forms in which Plagiarism exhibits itself, present a methodology of investigation, cater for punitive action proportional to the extent of the offence and even address the issue of false or spurious complaints.

2. Definition

According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, Plagiarism is defined as “taking and using the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as one’s own”. This, or various similar definitions found in recognized publications / documents, are very broad and can be used to create awareness about Plagiarism but are not practical enough to apply in order to ascertain guilt or innocence in specific cases. In order to establish the violation of ethical norms, or academic or intellectual dishonesty resulting from Plagiarism and to take punitive actions in this regard, it is necessary that the variety of forms in which Plagiarism manifests itself are known. These include but are not limited to the following:
“Verbatim copying, near-verbatim copying, or purposely paraphrasing portions of another author’s paper or unpublished report without citing the exact reference. Copying elements of another author’s paper, such as equations or illustrations that are not common knowledge, or copying or purposely paraphrasing sentences without citing the source. Verbatim copying portions of another author’s paper or from reports by citing but not clearly differentiating what text has been copied (e.g. not applying quotation marks correctly) and /or not citing the source correctly” [1]. “The unacknowledged use of computer programs, mathematical / computer models / algorithms, computer software in all forms, macros, spreadsheets, web pages, databases, mathematical deviations and calculations, designs / models / displays of any sort, diagrams, graphs, tables, drawings, works of art of any sort, fine art pieces or artifacts, digital images, computer-aided design drawings, GIS files, photographs, maps, music / composition of any sort, posters, presentations and tracing.” [2] “Self-plagiarism, that is, the verbatim or near-verbatim re-use of significant portions of one’s own copyrighted work without citing the original source.” [1]

3. Explanation from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia on the web describes and explains Plagiarism as “the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one’s own original work. Unlike cases of forgery, in which the authenticity of the writing, document, or some other kind of object itself is in question, plagiarism is concerned with the issue of false attribution. Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered
academic dishonesty or academic fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. Plagiarism is different from copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they emphasize different aspects of the transgression. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of the copyright holder, which involves the loss of income and artistic control of the material when it is used without the copyright holder’s consent. On the other hand, plagiarism is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author’s reputation. In the academic world, plagiarism by students is a very serious academic offense which can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment (typically at the high school level), or a failing grade for the course (typically at the college or university level). For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases where a student has committed a severe type of plagiarism (e.g. copying an entire article and submitting it as his / her own work), a student may be suspended or expelled, and any academic degrees or awards may be revoked. For professors and researchers, who are required to act as role models for their students, plagiarism is a very serious offence, and is punishable by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and integrity. Charges of plagiarism against students, faculty members and staff are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees, which students and faculty members have agreed to be bound by.” [3] Wikipedia also describes Self-plagiarism as “the re-use of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without citing the original work. Typically, high public-interest texts are not a subject of self-plagiarism; however, the authors should not violate copyright where applicable. “Public-interest texts” include such material as social, professional, and cultural opinions usually published in newspapers and magazines.” [3]

4. Aim: The aim of this policy is to apprise students, teachers, researchers and staff about Plagiarism and how it can be avoided. It is also aimed at discouraging Plagiarism by regulating and authorising punitive actions against those found guilty of the act of Plagiarism.

5. Applicability: The policy is applicable to students, teachers, researchers and staff of all institutions and organizations in Pakistan who are involved in writing or publishing their work. In this context a “Student” is a person who, on the date of submission of his / her paper / work is a registered student of any University or Degree Awarding Institution recognized by Higher Education Commission (HEC). “Teachers and Researchers” include faculty members or equivalent of the University / Organization or/of a constituent or affiliated college or researchers of an organization and such other persons as may be declared to be so by regulations. “Staff” is any employee of an organization involved in writing and publishing his / her work.

Any person listing his CV on the website or any current publication or applying for any benefit on the basis of published or presented work that is plagiarized will be liable to be punished as per prescribed rules.

6. Responsibility of the Institutions & Organizations: All institutions and organizations are responsible to apprise their students, teachers, researchers and staff of the definition, implications and resulting punishments in case, after due investigation, they are found guilty of plagiarism. The institutions / organizations must acquaint their students, teachers, researchers and staff with this policy and ensure that they are fully aware that all authors are deemed to be individually and collectively responsible for the contents of papers published by Journals / Publishers etc. Hence, it is the responsibility of each author, including the coauthors, to ensure that papers submitted for publication should attain the highest ethical standards with respect to plagiarism. To facilitate the institutions / organizations in creating awareness about Plagiarism, a modified version of “Little Book of Plagiarism”, a publication of Leeds Metropolitan University is appended as “Annexure” to this policy. Any University or Degree Awarding Institution which does not adopt and implement this policy will have its degree derecognized by HEC.

7. Reporting: To inform HEC or respective Universities / Organizations of alleged plagiarism, a complaint is to be made by email, post, fax or other means to HEC Quality Assurance Division or respective Universities / Organizations. In case of lodging a complaint in the form of a letter, copy may be sent to HEC. The following information is to be provided:
a) “Citation of the original paper or document or idea which was plagiarized, (paper title, author(s), publication title, month and year of publication if available and the journal, in which published, with details). If the original paper is unpublished (e.g. an institutional technical report, an on-line paper), the complainant is to provide as much information as possible to ensure authenticity of the claim.
b) The citation of the alleged plagiarizing paper (paper title, author(s), publication title, month and year of publication if available and the journal with details in which published). If the paper is unpublished (e.g. an institutional technical report, an on-line paper), the complainant is to provide as much information as possible to ensure proper investigation.
c) Copies of both papers if possible.
d) Any other information that would help HEC or respective Universities / Organizations to efficiently resolve the claim.” [1]
e) Name, designation, organization, address, e-mail address and telephone number of the complainant.
Investigation:

8. Upon receipt of an allegation of Plagiarism, the HEC Quality Assurance Division will request the respective Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization to carry out investigation. The complaints received through HEC or directly by a University / Organization will be dealt with by the Universities / Organizations according to the procedures given below. The Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization will have the discretion of not taking any action on anonymous complaints. For investigation of Plagiarism cases, the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of Organization will have an obligation to:
a) Constitute a “Plagiarism Standing Committee” consisting of 3 senior faculty members, a subject specialist in that particular field is to be co-opted, a senior student (only if a student is being investigated upon) and a nominee of the HEC.The seniority of the members of “Plagiarism Standing Committee” should be of a level keeping in view the seniority of the individual being investigated upon and the nature and gravity of the offence.
b) Provide a guideline, prepared by HEC for the functioning of the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”, to all members of the Committee.
c) Provide clear terms of reference to the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” for their investigation.
d) The members of the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” are to sign a confidentiality statement that during the investigation they will, under no circumstances, disclose any individual author’s name, paper titles, referees, or any other personal or specific information concerning the plagiarism complaint under investigation, nor shall they reveal the names of the committee members.
e) Provide opportunity to the author / authors under investigation to justify the originality of their concepts and research work. Similar opportunity will also be provided to the author whose paper is deemed to have been Plagiarized and / or the complainant, to justify the complaint.
f) Provide every opportunity to the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” to use all foreseeable means to investigate the plagiarism claim.

9. The Plagiarism Standing Committee shall then conduct the investigation. Depending on the details of the claim, the investigation may include, but may not be limited to, any or all of the following steps:
a) Manual and / or automated tests for content similarity [1].
b) Determination of the extent and quantum of significant material plagiarized.
c) Soliciting comments to the claim, from the Editor-in-Chief (of a journal) or Program Chair (of conference proceedings) and referees of either or both papers.
d) Consultation with legal counsel. [1]
e) Consult / contact witnesses and record statements there-of if so required.
f) Consult / contact present and / or past employers of the authors.

10. The “Plagiarism Standing Committee” will submit its report with clear cut findings and recommendations to the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization within a specified period not exceeding sixty days. The Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization will have the discretion to implement the recommendations after approval through the statutory process and take punitive action against the offender as per penalties prescribed under this policy or to forward the report to HEC or his / her parent organization for further action if outside their purview / jurisdiction.
Penalties for Plagiarism

11. Plagiarism is an intellectual crime. As such the penalties for plagiarism should not only take into account the severity and recurrence of the offence, but also the intellectual standing of the offender. This entails a gradual increase in punitive action with minimum punishment for a first time offence by a student who copies a home work assignment to a maximum punishment for a teacher/researcher/staff who attempts to present / publish, or actually presents / publishes plagiarized material; as his own, in a conference / journal. Therefore, the punishments for Plagiarism have been divided into two separate categories, i.e those for “Teachers, Researchers and Staff” and those for the “Students”. The groups have already been defined in para 5 above.
(a) Penalties for Teachers, Researchers and Staff: When an act of plagiarism, as described earlier in paras 2 and 3, is found to have occurred, the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” in its recommendations, DEPENDING UPON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE PROVEN OFFENCE, will advise the Competent Authority of the Organization, to take any one or a combination of the following disciplinary action(s) against the teacher, researcher and / or staff found guilty of the offence:
(i) Major Penalty:
In cases where most of the paper (or key results) have been exactly copied from any published work of other people without giving the reference to the original work, then (a) a major penalty of dismissal from service needs to be prescribed, along with (b) the offender may be “Black Listed” and may NOT be eligible for employment in any academic / research organization, and (c) the notification of “Black Listing” of the author(s) may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor / Rector / Head of the organization.
(ii) Moderate Penalty:
In case where some paragraphs including some key results have been copied without citation, then a moderate penalty involving any one or both of the following needs to be imposed (a) demotion to the next lower grade, (b) the notification of “Black Listing” of the author(s) which may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor / Rector / Head of the organization.
(iii) Minor Penalty:
In case a few paragraphs have been copied from an external source without giving reference of that work, then minor penalties need to be prescribed for a specified period involving any one or more of the following: (a) warning, (b) freezing of all research grants, (c) the promotions/annual increments of the offender may be stopped, for a specified period and (d) HEC or the University / Organization may debar the offender from sponsorship of research funding, travel grant, supervision of Ph.D. students, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded program for a period as deemed appropriate by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(b) Students: When an act of plagiarism, as described earlier in paras 2 and 3, is found to have occurred, the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” in its recommendations, DEPENDING UPON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE PROVEN OFFENCE, will advise the Vice Chancellor / Head of the Organization, to take any one or a combination of the following disciplinary action(s) against the student(s) found guilty of the offence:
(i) In the case of thesis the responsibility of plagiarism will be of the student and not of the supervisor or members of the Supervisory Committee.
(ii) The offender may be expelled/ rusticated from the University and from joining any institution of Higher Education in Pakistan for a period as deemed appropriate by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”. A notice may be circulated among all academic institutions and research organization to this effect.
(iii) The offender may be relegated to a lower class.
(iv) The offender may be given a failure grade in the subject.
(v) The offender may be fined an amount as deemed appropriate.
(vi) The offender may be given a written warning if the offence is minor and is committed for the first time.
(vii) The degree of a student may be withdrawn if AT ANY TIME it is proven that he or she has presented Plagiarized work in his / her MS, MPhil or PhD dissertation if the extent of plagiarism comes under the category of major penalty as conveyed in Para 11(a-1).
(viii) The notification of the plagiarism by the author(s) may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization.
(ix) HEC or the University / Organization may debar the offender from sponsorship of research funding, travel grant, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded program for a period as deemed appropriate by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(x) Any other penalty deemed fit by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(c) Co-Authors/Declarations

12. Provided that a co-author has listed a paper in his/her resume and applied for a benefit forthwith, any co-author is deemed to be equally responsible for any plagiarism committed in a published paper presented to or published in a journal or presented at a conference.

13. All Journals in Pakistan must require ALL authors to sign a declaration that the material presented in the creative work is not plagiarized (Sample Attached)

14. Additional Actions Required: In addition to the above punishments, the following additional common actions must be taken if the offence of Plagiarism is established:
a) If the plagiarized paper is accessible on the web page its access will be removed. The paper itself will be kept in the database for future research or legal purposes.
b) The author(s) will be asked to write a formal letter of apology to the authors of the Original paper that was plagiarized, including an admission of plagiarism. Should the author(s) refuse to comply then additional punishments as deemed fit may be recommended by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee.
c) If the paper is submitted but not published yet, the paper will be rejected by the Editor-in-Chief or the Program Chair without further revisions and without any further plagiarism investigation conducted.[1]
However, Warning may be issued to the author/ co-author.

15. Appeal: As the penalties are severe, the affected person(s) will have the right to appeal to the Chairman HEC / Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization for a review of the findings or may submit a mercy petition within 30 days from the date of notification. Such appeals / petitions will be disposed off within 60 days of receipt, by following the laid down procedures regarding such appeals.

16. Penalty for Wrong Reporting/False Allegation: If the case of Plagiarism is not proved and it is confirmed that a false allegation was lodged, the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization will inform the complainant’s Organization and will recommend disciplinary action against the complainant, to be taken by his / her parent organization.
References
[1] “ACM (Association of Computing Machinery) Policy on Plagiarism” (http://www.acm.org/pubs/plagiarism%20policy.html)
[2] “Academic Integrity Statement: Appendix1” (University of Southampton Calendar 2006/7) (http://www.calendar.soton.ac.uk/sectionIV/part8a.html)
[3] “Plagiarism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/plagiarism).
(Sample)
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION OF PAKISTAN
(Monograph & Textbook Writing Scheme)
Monograph / Textbook Proposal Submission Undertaking*
Corresponding Author(s) name: _______________________
Corresponding Author(s) Address: ______________________
Title of Work: _______________________
The Higher Education Commission (Publisher) and the Monograph/Textbook Proposal Author (Authors if a multi-authored Work) agree as the following:

17. The Monograph/Book will contain the original Work of author(s).

18. It will not violate copyright or intellectual property right of any person or entity.

19. It will not contain previously published material in whole or in part for which permission from the concerned parties has not been secured.

20. The author(s) recognize that if any material submitted for consideration to the HEC is found to be plagiarized, then the HEC may bar the author(s) from participating in all HEC Programs and public notice to the fact maybe issued in print as well as electronic media. The HEC reserves the right to recover all amounts spent on evaluation/publication etc., and also may take any other action deemed necessary to serve as deterrence against plagiarism.

21. The author(s) shall indemnify and hold the Publisher harmless against loss or expenses arising from breach of any such warranties.

22. In consideration of the HEC’s agreement to publish the Work, the author(s) hereby grants HEC a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to print, publish, reproduce or distribute the Work throughout the world by all means of expression, including electronic format. The author(s) further grants HEC the right to use the author’s name in association with the Work in published form and in promotional materials.

23. The copyrights are duly reserved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.
All authors are requested to sign this form. If not signed by all authors, the corresponding author acknowledges that s/he is signing on behalf of all the authors and with their authorization. Faxed signatures and multiple forms are acceptable provided the corresponding author collates all the material and submits in one batch.
Author Signature: ____________________ Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________
Author Signature: ____________________ Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________
Author Signature: ____________________ Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________
Publisher Signature: __________________ Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________

  • Similar Schemes could be developed for authors or thesis etc
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Ms. Tooba Ghaffar is an Assistant Researcher at the Center. She holds a B.A.(Hons) in International Relations. Her primary interest area is Indo-Pak security relations with a special focus on the nuclear deterrence. Her undergrad research involved exploring nuclear deterrence with the lens of stability-instability paradox. She frequently writes on her subject for prominent newspapers.

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Ms. Maimuna Ashraf is working as a Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan. She is a former Visiting Fellow at South Asian Voices (SAV), the Stimson Center in Washington D.C. Previously, she was associated with an Islamabad based think-tank, Strategic Vision Institute (SVI), Islamabad as Senior Research Associate. Ms. Ashraf has been participating in national as well as international certificate courses/trainings on areas of her research that includes nuclear nonproliferation, arms control, weapons of mass destruction and nuclear doctrines/postures with special reference to South Asia. She presented her research work at international workshops/seminars including Atlantic Council, Stimson Center and European Union Nonproliferation and Disarmament Consortium. She also has been a coordinator and contributor for various national conferences/seminars. She holds an M.Phil. in International Relations from Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Her M.Phil. dissertation focused on Nuclear Disaster Management in Pakistan. Her writings have appeared in The National Interest, South Asian Voices, CISS Strategic Insight, International Policy Digest, The News International and various dailies on issues of her interest.

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Iftikhar Uddin Hasan is the Editor of biannual journal of the center CISS Insight. He is also the Research Coordinator at the center. Apart from his editorial responsibilities, he also supervises and guides researchers to ensure that work done by the research team meet the necessary requirements.

He has an experience of working as the Editor of Pakistan Army Journal and Pakistan Defence Review, published by Pakistan Army for over three years. Hasan has a long teaching experience in Pakistan’s military institutions spread over several decades. He also has to his credit the establishment and management of a school system for low-paid industrial workers in the KPK.

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Brigadier (Retired) Dr. Naeem Salik is a Ph.D. in Political Science and International Relations from the University of Western Australia. He holds a Master’s in International Politics and Strategic Studies from the University of Wales, UK and a Master’s in History from the Punjab University. He has been a visiting fellow at the Stimson Centre, Stanford University, Brookings Institution and School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.

He has served in the Pakistan Army in a variety of assignments for 33 years including a fairly long tenure as Director Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs at the Strategic Plans Division. He has taught post-graduate courses at the Department of Defence & Strategic Studies at the Quaid-i-Azam University from 1994 to 2005. He also taught Masters and M Phil courses at the Strategic & Nuclear Studies Department at National Defence University, Islamabad.

He has attended numerous international conferences and track-2 initiatives and has published over 30 research articles and book chapters on strategic and security issues. His book ‘Genesis of South Asian Nuclear Deterrence’ was published by the Oxford University Press in 2009. His second book on “Learning to Live with The Bomb – Pakistan 1998-2016” came out in 2017 and is a valuable addition to the subject. He is working as a Senior Research Fellow at CISS, Islamabad.

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Dr. Syed Javaid Khurshid, Ph.D. is a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS). Dr. Javaid worked for Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for 39 years in different capacities as Consultant/Advisor/Director General/Director of Planning, Development & Projects Coordination, Director Biosciences & Executive Secretary, Abdus Salam International Nathiagali Summer College. His expertise is in Mitigation and Control of WMD and CBRN. His special interest is in Nuclear Knowledge Management, Nuclear Energy & Climate Change and Nuclear Techniques for achieving SDGs, Science Communication & Science Diplomacy. He is Technical Committee Member of Higher Education Commission-Ministry of Foreign Affairs-Internal Compliance Committee on Export Control Laws. He was a member of Inter-ministerial committee of Biological Weapon Control, MoFA, Government of Pakistan. Presented Pakistan 4 times as technical expert of delegation to UN on Biological Weapon Control (BWC) meetings. Participated 3 times as a member of State Party to UN on BWC meeting & helped in making the legislation on dual-use products. Dr. Javaid is, President Pakistan Nuclear Society, comprising of 3500 Nuclear Scientists, Engineers & Professionals. He is Secretary National Member Organization, IIASA Laxenburg, Austria. Adjunct Faculty Member of Department of Communication & Management Sciences, PIEAS where he delivers lectures on Leadership and Project Preparation, Implementation, Monitoring & Evaluation. He is Director at Large of Planning Management Institute, PA, USA (Islamabad Chapter). He is an expert on Project Preparation, Management, Monitoring & Evaluation. Dr. Javaid’s research activities are mainly concentrated on health related topics. His passionate research and excellent presentation skills resulted in about 50 publications in international/national journals, 12 international proceedings, 02 National Guidelines, 15 research reports, 25 articles, 44 presentations, he is listed as Productive Scientists of Pakistan with an Impact Factor of 117. Dr. Javaid is Fellow of Chemical Society of Pakistan. He Associate Editor JPMS, USA, Editor at Large and referee to many international and national journals. He is Member Advisory Council of “Global Affairs”, a magazine circulated in 19 countries.

Dr. Javaid is an approved Ph.D. supervisor of Higher Education Commission (HEC). Worked as visiting faculty member of Biochemistry at Muhammad Ali Jinnah University (MAJU) & Hamdard Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (HIPS), Islamabad. His specialized topics are Bio-Safety, Bio-Security, Bioterrorism, Code of Ethics and Conducts. Adjunct Faculty member of National Institute of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad. Dr. Javaid utilizing his administrative skills & passion for education worked as an Executive Secretary of prestigious Abdussalam International Nathiagali Summer College 2006-2016. He helped disseminating knowledge & motivating research teams by arranging College every year on Cutting Edge Technologies with the support of AbdusSalaam International Centre of Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, US-National Science Foundation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Centre of European Nuclear Research (CERN).

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Mr. Zawar Haider Abidi is a former military officer. He has served in Pakistan Army for over 26 years on various assignments. He has also served in Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Branch Strategic Plans Division, secretariat of the Pakistan National Command Authority from October 2001 to Nov 2012. He has been a visiting fellow at the Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington D.C, USA (2003), and a visiting fellow at the James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies, Monterey, California, USA. (2010).

He has been an expert consultant supporting United Nation Security Council (UNSC) 1540 Committee for a period of five years from November 2012 to Nov 2017 to monitor the implementation of UNSC resolution 1540 by the UN Member States.

While in Pakistan Army he has been on the faculty of number of training institutions. In Arms Control and Disarmament Branch SPD he has worked on issues related to non-proliferation, arms control, strategic trade management, research and outreach. He has been part of inter-agency groups responsible for, drafting Pakistan’s Export Control Act 2004, designing and establishment of Strategic Export Control Division of Pakistan, compilation of Pakistan’s National Control List and an inter-agency group developing the architecture for deployment of Radiological Portal Monitors on all land, air and sea border crossing for exercising effective border control. Zawar Haider Abidi has served as visiting faculty at the Defence and Strategic Studies Department at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (2008). He has participated in number of international conferences, seminars and workshops on non-proliferation and strategic trade management.

Due to his stay at United States as an Expert Consultant supporting UNSC 1540 Committee he has a unique experience in implementation of WMD non-proliferation in general and UNSC resolution 1540 in particular, at the global level. He has participated in number of international conferences, seminars and workshops on non-proliferation and strategic trade management. He has an in-depth understanding and knowledge of implementing laws and regulations with regard to CWC, BWC, NPT and their means of delivery of twenty-three UN Member States of Asian Region including the SAARC Member States.

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Dr. Mansoor Ahmed is a Senior Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan. He is a former Stanton Junior Faculty Fellow (2015-16) and Postdoctoral Research Fellow (2016-18) with the Managing the Atom Project/International Security Program at the Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center. He was also an MTA Associate for 2018-2019.

Previously, he was a Visiting Research Scholar at the Cooperative Monitoring Center, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, N.M., USA in 2013.

He has also served as a Lecturer in the Department of Defence and Strategic Studies (DSS), Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU), Islamabad from 2011 to 2015, and as Visiting Faculty in the Department of Strategic and Nuclear Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad from 2009-2011.

Before joining the academia, he worked in the Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service from July 2003 to January 2011.

Dr. Ahmed holds a PhD in International Relations from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. His research interests include various aspects of Pakistani and Indian nuclear programs and policies; fissile materials, non-proliferation, arms control and strategic stability issues with special reference to South Asia. His research work has been published by the Belfer Center, the Stimson Center, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the US Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.

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Syed Muhammad Ali is a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. Pakistan. He is widely published, interviewed and quoted on geopolitical, strategic, nuclear and security issues, both nationally and internationally. He is a frequent participant in various international Track-2 engagements and regular commentator at policy forums, thinks tank and universities on strategic and nuclear issues. Earlier, he has taught Dimensions of Modern Strategy, Foreign Policy Analysis and Comparative Politics at the National Defence University and served as a Course Coordinator and member of the NDU disciplinary committee. He designed and introduced over 30 new courses, which are currently being taught at M.Sc, M.Phil and PhD levels and also reviewed Higher Education Commission’s curriculum of International Relations. He also teaches at the Foreign Service Academy of Pakistan and has a rich and diverse international exposure of both government and multinational organizations. Earlier, he has served as a correspondent at the Voice of America at its Washington, D.C headquarters and Pakistan Television Ltd., Islamabad, respectively. He has also served as Controller at the Cross Media Ltd., a London-based Japanese media company and auditor/consultant at the PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), world’s largest consultancy firm. His diverse portfolio at the PwC included some of the world’s leading energy giants like Shell, Schlumberger, OMV, Premier Oil, large telecom companies such as Ericsson, PTCL and private organizations such as Agha Khan Foundation and GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology.

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+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms. Saima Aman Sial is working as a Senior Research Officer and expert in strategic issues at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. She is also the associate editor of CISS Insight, a biannual journal of the Center. Aman is a former Nonproliferation Fellow the Center for Nonproliferation Studies Monterey California, Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Education Center, South Korea and Sandia National Laboratories, USA. She has an M.Phil in Strategic Studies from National Defence University. Her dissertation related to “Evolution of Pakistan’s Naval Strategic Thought: For an assured second strike Capability”. She has participated in several national as well as international certificate courses/trainings on nuclear science and technology, safety and security of radioactive sources, nonproliferation and arms control, Chemical weapons Convention (assistance and protection) and nuclear disarmament.

Previously, she served as a research coordinator and Senior Research Associate in Center for Pakistan and Gulf Studies and Strategic Technology Resources respectively. She has an experience of working with Pakistan’s Strategic Plans Division as an Assistant Director – Research in its Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Directorate for some years. She has conducted research on a variety of subjects including nuclear strategy, doctrines, safety and security, command and control systems, multilateral export controls, Indian Ocean geostrategy, arms control and nonproliferation policy with special reference to South Asia.

She is a frequent contributor in national and international conferences relating to strategic issues, including being a part of India-Pakistan Track II engagements. She also contributes in national dailies on South Asian deterrence, nonproliferation, export control and nuclear policy issues and has been adjunct faculty at Bahria University Islamabad.

Ms. Huma Rehman
Senior Research Officer/Program Coordinator
humarehman.ciss@gmail.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms. Huma Rehman is currently working as a Senior Research Officer/Program Coordinator at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan, where she works on various aspects of Strategic security issues; International Security, Nuclear/Missile Proliferation, WMD Terrorism, Arms Control/Disarmament, Conflict management and Resolution. Among her academic degrees, she holds M.Phil degree in Defense and Strategic Studies from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. She has also completed her fellowship at Monterey Institute International Studies (MIIS) on Nuclear Non-Proliferation Studies, California-US. She also worked as a research fellow at Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-New Mexico-US. She has received a certificate on Nuclear Safeguards Policy Middlebury Institute International Studies (MIIS) on Nuclear Non-Proliferation Studies, California-US. She has also taught Strategic Studies courses as a Visiting Lecturer in Islamabad University. Ms. Rehman has been part of internationally arranged track two programs between Pakistan and India. She contributes articles, and book reviews in ‘CISS Insight’ on South Asian and international strategic issues. She also writes in Newspapers and participates in Television Talk Shows.

Mr. Muhammad Sarmad Zia
Research Fellow
sarmad.ciss@gmail.com
+92-333-154-1475
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Muhammad Sarmad Zia is a Research Fellow at the Centre of International Strategic Studies (CISS). He is also the Assistant Editor of the Center’s Bi-annual Journal CISS Insight. He holds an M.Phil. Degree in Defence and Strategic Studies from Quaid-i-Azam University. His areas of interest include foreign and defence policies of global and regional powers, nuclear strategy and stability, arms control and nonproliferation policy. His MPhil thesis is titled ‘Russia’s Defence Policy: A case-study of Putin Era (1999-2016)’. He has previously interned at the Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Directorate of Pakistan’s Strategic Plans Division, worked at Dawn News as a trainee sub-editor and interned at the Institute of Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis (ISSRA) at the National Defence University (NDU). He writes opinion pieces in newspapers and runs an online blog on regional and international strategic issues. He can be reached at sarmad.ciss@gmail.com

Ms. Ayesha Abbasi
Research Officer
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ayesha Abbasi is working as a Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. Her fields of interest include geopolitics (with a special focus on U.S. foreign policy), international security, nuclear politics, nuclear strategy, arms control/disarmament, environmental security, and climate change. Previously, she has worked with Pakistan’s Strategic Plans Division as an International Relations Analyst at the Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Branch. She continues to contribute to national dailies on issues of her interest. Abbasi holds an M. Phil degree in Strategic and Nuclear Studies from National Defence University, and a Bachelors of Science degree in Environmental Science from Bahria University, Islamabad.

Mr. Sufian Ullah
Research Fellow
sufianullah@gmail.com
+92-321-883-3386
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Sufian Ullah is currently working as a Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). He holds an M.Phil degree in Strategic & Nuclear Studies, from National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. His areas of interest include the nuclear policies of various nuclear weapons States and the geo-politics in the Indian Ocean Region. His current work investigates the developing naval competition among regional States and also the emerging dynamics of sea-based nuclear deterrence in South Asia.

Mr. Sajid Aziz
Research Officer
Sajidazizbaloch@gmail.com
+92-51-2722343 | +92-51-8315410-423
+92-321-809-5623 | +92-332-133-3918

Mr. Sajid Aziz is working as a Research Officer at CISS. He holds a Master’s degree in Defense and Strategic Studies (DSS) from Quaid-I-Azam University. His Master’s seminar paper was “Oslo Accords: Prelude to a Durable Peace or Palestinian Capitulation?” His areas of interest include the politics of Middle East, security, strategic and foreign policy issues.

Afeera Firdous
Associate Research Officer
afeerafirdous@yahoo.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms. Afeera Firdous is a Associate Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. She holds an M. Phil degree in Strategic Studies from National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. Her M. Phil thesis was on “Counter-terrorism in Cyberspace: Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and India”. Her research interests include counter-extremism, counter-terrorism, cyber and information warfare.

Riaz A. Khokhar
Assistant Editor
Research Assistant
riazkhokhar11@gmail.com , khokharR@eastwestcenter.org
+92-331-521-3964     +1-202-476-9677
+92-51-2722343     +92-51-8315410-423

Mr. Riaz A. Khokhar is a Research Assistant at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. He was also an Asia Studies Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center, Washington D.C., from April to June 2019. His research interests are Pakistan and India’s foreign relations; strategic and security issues; nuclear policy and proliferation politics; cyberspace policy and politics; and U.S. China power politics in South Asia. He was a speaker on U.S.-Pakistan relations in a public seminar at East-West Center in Washington in June 2019. His analysis has featured in CISS Insight, East-West Center’s Asia Pacific Bulletin, The National Interest, Newsweek Pakistan, Pakistan Politico, Express Tribune and Daily Times. 

Samran Ali
Research Assistant
samranali2222@gmail.com
+92-313-694-2442
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mr. Samran Ali is a Research Assistant at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). His areas of interest include the arms control, non-proliferation and strategic issues of South Asia. He has published his research in the CISS Insight, a biannual journal of CISS. In addition, his analysis has published in Arms Control Today, The National Interest, Express Tribune, The Nation, Pakistan Politico, Global Village Space, and Strategic Foresight for Asia. He has graduated from the Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University. 

Syed Sadam Hussain Shah​
Research Assistant
syedsadampak@gmail.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Syed Sadam Hussain Shah is working as a Research Assistant at CISS. His research focuses on International Cyber, Technology and Nuclear Policy issues. He has participated in a Track-2 dialogue on South Asian Strategic Stability in Istanbul. His research has been published in leading international journals and think tanks including the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, CSIS Washington D.C., and Anthology Series for Strategic Studies Canada. He has presented papers at the Shanghai University in China and Karadeniz Teknik University in Turkey. He is currently working as a review editor for the Journal of Politics and Sustainability. He graduated from National Defence University, Islamabad with an MSc in International Relations.

Maryyum Masood
Assistant Research Program Coordinator
mariyam60@live.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms. Maryyum Masood is a Assistant Research Program Coordinator at the Center. She holds a B.Sc. degree in Defense and Diplomatic Studies from Fatima Jinnah Women University. Her seminar paper was titled “Geopolitics of South China Sea.” Her research interests are nuclear policy and development in South Asia. She regularly publishes on contemporary issues in prominent newspapers and magazines.

Sabeen Malik
Research Assistant
sabeen.malik1@outlook.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms. Sabeen Malik is a Research Assistant at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). She holds an M. Phil degree in International Relations from National Defence University, Islamabad. Her research interests include Pakistan’s Foreign Policy Affairs, Geopolitics in Indian Ocean, Non-traditional Security, and Climate Change. Her M. Phil’s dissertation was on “Climate Change Policy Responses: A Comparative Analysis of India and Pakistan”. She also contributes opinion articles in prominent newspapers and magazines.

Yasir Mehmood
G.M Finance & Administration / H.R Coordinator
yasir.mehmood@ciss.org.pk, yasirmah85@yahoo.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mr. Yasir Mehmood is Administrative and Accounts Manager  at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan, where he deals with administration matters, human resource and financial reports and responsible for  audit, monitoring, upgrading and tax compliance. He has experience of different projects as research associate, an organizer of SME and Entrepreneurship, Participated as a presenter in Marketing Presentation Gala (MPG) and also organized 3rd National Universities of Modern Languages (NUML) job fair.

Mr. Mehmood holds Masters in Business Administration. His career appointment includes Soneri Bank Limited, as an Operation Officer, Askari Bank Limited as a Personal Financial Consultant. His areas of specialization are: Branch Banking, Commercial Banking, Credit Analysis, Risk Management, Employee Orientation, Operational Excellence, Organizational Charts management, Employee Relations, Development & Implementation of Accounts, Administration and HR Policies and Procedures. He is currently pursuing his M.Phil in Management Sciences.

Saadain Gardezi
Research Intern
saadaingardezi@outlook.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mr. Saadain Gardezi is a Research Intern at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). He is a student of Bachelors in Strategic Studies at National Defence University, Islamabad. His research interests include Traditional and Non-Traditional Security Paradigms and the strategic implications of the rise of China and Russia in Eurasian and the Global World Order.

Tooba Rizwan
Research Intern
Tooba_rizwan1997@hotmail.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms. Tooba Rizwan is a Research Intern at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). She is a student of Bachelors in Strategic Studies at National Defence University, Islamabad. Her research interests include the Global Non-Proliferation Regime & US-China geopolitics with special focus on their implications on South Asia.

Ms. Amna Saqib
Amna Saqib
Research Officer
aamansaqib89@gmail.com
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms. Amna Saqib is a Research officer at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. She holds an M.Phil degree in International Relations from National Defense University (NDU), Islamabad. She has worked as Visiting Faculty member at SPIR, QAU Islamabad, and NDU, Islamabad and she has also been an intern at Arms Control Disarmament Affairs, Directorate of Pakistan’s Strategic Plan Division.  Her area of interests include Foreign Policies of Major Powers, International Security, Global Nuclear Politics and Nuclear Strategies. She contributes articles to the National dailies on issues of her interest.

Dr. Farooque Ahmed Leghari
Visiting Research Fellow
farooque.leghari@usindh.edu.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Dr. Farooque Ahmed Leghari is presently serving as a Visiting Research Fellow at Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). He has recently finished his PhD in Strategic and Security Studies on “The role of nuclear deterrence in Pakistan’s strategic policy towards India” from School of History, Politics and Strategy, National University of Malaysia. He is presently serving as a lecturer at Department of International Relations at University of Sindh, Jamshoro, since April, 2010. Before joining the university, he had worked with Dawn News and SAMAA TV. He has various publications in international and Pakistani research journals to his credit. He frequently appears on electronic media and shares his analysis on international issues.

Amb. Ali Sarwar Naqvi
Executive Director CISS
sarwarnaqvi@yahoo.com
+92-301-856-1240
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

In a long diplomatic career of thirty six years, from 1970 to 2006, which culminated in senior Ambassadorial positions, served at the United Nations, both in New York and Vienna, and in Washington D.C, London, Paris and Brussels. In the course of professional work, he delivered lectures and speeches on various current affairs issues in many institutions. He has also participated in discussions on various national and international issues and questions on TV and electronic media, both in Pakistan and abroad. After serving as Pakistan’s Ambassador to Austria and the IAEA, was appointed Member (Chairman’s Advisory Council) in the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and functioned as Adviser to the Chairman PAEC on International Affairs, with particular focus on IAEA matters.

Current Work

Ambassador Naqvi is presently serving as the founding Executive Director of the Center. Established in October 2010 the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) as an independent and autonomous think-tank for research and analysis of current regional and international strategic issues from a Pakistani perspective, to contribute to the national and international discourse, and thus create greater understanding between Pakistan and other countries.

Other Engagements:

Serving as Distinguished Visiting Fellow (DVF) in the National Defence University, Islamabad since August 2010.

Associated with other Pakistani Research Institutes since November 2009.

Appointed Expert on the Technical Committee of the Department of Defense and Strategic Studies (DSS) of the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad in April 2009.

Appointed Examiner of the Federal Public Service Commission for International Relations in June 2008.