Ethical Guidelines

The Editor of a research journal plays an important role in establishing and maintaining the professional standards. Publication of a paper in an HEC recognized journal is expected to be a reflection of quality work of the author (s) and the affiliating institution (if any). The Editor is expected to perform the responsibility towards the journal on its all aspects and at varied stages i.e. from receiving of an article to publishing it. Keeping this in view, it becomes prime responsibility of an editor to adapt the following guidelines while publishing papers in his/her research journal.

1. The Editor’s Responsibilities
The Editor of a research journal should be responsible for:

  • Establishing and maintaining quality of the journal by publishing quality papers in his/her journal.
  • Promotion of freedom of expression within the cultural, constitutional/legal framework,
  • Providing integrity and credibility of the research contributions,
  • Meeting the needs of authors and readers,
  • Maintaining ethical standards of their journal,
  • Providing corrigendum for any correction, clarification and apologies where required.


2. Good practices for their job would include to:

  • Encourage new ideas and suggestions of authors, peer reviewers, members of editorial board and readers for improving quality of his/her journal,
  • Apply the process of blind peer review in true letter and spirit,
  • Promote innovative findings in respective field and publishing them on priority,
  • Promote anti plagiarism policy,
  • Educate contributors (authors) about ethical practices in research, and
  • Implement the journal’s policy without institutional pressure and revise the policy from time to time.


3. Formation of Editorial Board

  • The Editor must ensure that the Editorial Board comprises prominent scholars of the field who can adequately promote the journal,
  • The Editorial Board should comprise of and be responsible for the following:
  • An Editorial Committee, who will be responsible for providing logistics, and
  • Advisory Committee, who will be responsible for reviewing the submitted research articles, this committee should have at least 50% representation of scholars from abroad.
  • May appoint Editorial Board members for a prescribed duration and add or revise constitution of the Board if required,
  • The Editor should inform new board members about ethical guidelines and their expected role and update the Editorial Board members about development, challenges and any changes made in the journal policy,
  • The Editorial Board should maintain quality of the journal because an assigned category by the HEC (e.g. W, X, Y, and Z categories) will depend on the quality of published papers in it. It is the professional duty of the Board members to select credible research work, and
  • To ensure smooth functioning of the journal, the Editors are responsible for conducting the Editorial Board meetings on regular basis (at least twice a year).


4. Fair play and Impartiality

  • The criteria for the selection of research papers must be impartial and the Editor should select academically and scientifically sound articles,
    The Editor should:
  • Promptly respond to the author (s) of the papers submitted for publication, and
  • Assign a specific number to an article submitted for processing; and pay impartial consideration to all research papers submitted for publication.
  • To ensure evaluation of the content of research papers impartially,
  • Disregard the discriminating factors, e.g. gender, race, ethnicity, religious belief, cultural sentiments, political affiliation, seniority and/or institutional association of the author(s) while selecting articles for publication,
  • To ensure impartiality of the review process by informing the reviewer (s) that s/he needs to disclose any conflicts of interest regarding the submitted research paper.


5. Confidentiality

  • The Editor must ensure confidentiality of the author(s) and reviewers during the process of double-blind peer review,
  • Information pertaining to a research paper should not be disclosed by the Editor to anyone except the author(s), reviewer(s), and editorial board members,
  • Upon reaching a decision about a research paper, only the Editor may disclose or announce title of the study and name of the author(s) that has been accepted for publication. Any other information may only be disclosed with the prior approval of the author(s), and
  • Confidentiality of the participants of the research should also be ensured by protecting personal information (e.g. identifiable personal details, images, and/or individual results). Editor should declare clear guidelines to the contributors (authors) regarding confidentiality of the individual participant.
  • Prior to publication, the content of the manuscript should be kept confidential, both the Editor and reviewer(s) will not share or use any part of the work.


6. Editing and Formatting Guidelines

  • The Editor should prepare clear guidelines about preparing and formatting of a paper and print these guidelines in each issue of the journal,
  • The guidelines should cover information related to ‘content’ and ‘format’ of a research paper,
  • Any preferred manual of style (e.g. APA, Chicago Manual, MLA Style, etc) should be declared as a policy decision.


7. The Review Process

  • Details about the review process should be declared,
  • Editor should ensure that all published papers have gone through a double-blind peer review, and at least one of the reviewers is from outside the country.
  • The Editor should ensure that peer-review is masked in both directions and as such the identity of the author is removed from the manuscript prior to its review in order to protect the confidentiality and privacy.
  • The Editor should provide sufficient guidelines to reviewers, including necessary information about the review process and provide them a reviewer comment form for recording his/her comments.
  • The Editor must ensure that peer review process is prompt, nondiscriminatory and highly professional.
  • The Editor should develop a system of confidentiality of research papers undergoing the review process.
  • The Editor is required to send reviewers’ comments to author(s) promptly and should ensure that the corrections suggested by the reviewers are incorporated by the author(s) in true letter and spirit.
  • The Editor to critically evaluate peer review practices regularly and make improvements, if, require.
  • The Editor should maintain a database of competent and qualified reviewers. For this purpose, s/he may use various sources other than personal contacts to identify new reviewers (e.g. referring by author (s), citations and references section in a book/journal), and
  • The Editor should refer troublesome cases (e.g. in case of one acceptance and one rejection or any conflict arisen after review) to Advisory Committee in order to resolve the matter amicably.


8. Dealing with Misconduct

  • The Editor should encourage reviewers to comment on ethical issues and possible research and publication misconduct (e.g. inappropriate research design, incomplete detail on participant’s consent, data manipulation, and presentation).
  • The Editor should encourage reviewers to comment on the validity of submitted research paper and identify ‘subtle (simply copy-paste)’ and/or ‘blatant (paraphrasing)’ type of plagiarism, if, practised by the author(s).
  • The Editor should confirm plagiarism (carry out objective check through Turnitin) and/or searching for similar titles to the submitted research paper, and
  • The Editor should be prepared to publish a corrigendum, remove and retract a plagiarized article if it comes to his/her knowledge subsequent to its publication.


9. Transparency

  • The Editor must ensure that multiple papers as a principal investigator submitted by an author should not be published in the same issue.
  • Only ONE co-authorship is allowed for those authors who also contribute a research paper as a principal investigator in the same issue.
  • For the members of the Editorial Board (including the Editor), it will only be limited to ONE paper per issue either to submit research paper as a principal investigator or co- author, and
  • The Editor should adopt authorship or co-authorship policy that will set an example in the scientific community and strictly discourage any misconduct (e.g. forcible inclusion of a name in the author list). Authorship should only be given to those individuals who have substantially contributed in the said article.


10. Conflict of Interest

  • The Editor should not edit a submitted paper for those author(s) and/or institution against which s/he has any conflicts of interest (e.g. resulting from competitive, collaborative and/or professional standing).
  • The Editor should also apply this guideline on their reviewers and Editorial Board members.
  • To ensure unbiased review, the Editor should declare a clear cut policy for his/her own submission and a research paper submitted by an Editorial Board member, and
  • The Editor must publish a list of common interests (e.g. financial, academic and/or any other type) for all Editorial Board members and editorial staff. This list should be updated from time to time.
  • To ensure unbiased review, the Editor should declare a clear cut policy for his/her own submission and a research paper submitted by an Editorial Board member.
  • In case of article (s) submitted by the Editor, the decision pertaining to the editor’s submitted article/s, one of the Associate Editors must take responsibility for the evaluation of the article and information pertaining to reviewers should be kept confidential.


11. Disclosure

  • The Editor must not use any unpublished information/data from the submitted research paper without the permission of the author(s), and
  • Any information received after the peer review process must be kept confidential and not used for personal gains.


12. Publication Decisions

  • The Editor should only shortlist research papers which have relevance to the scope of the journal clearly stated in the Journal, using his /her judgment, but without any personal bias.
  • After completion of the reviewing process, the submission of revised manuscript, and assessing the quality and validity, the Editor has a right to accept or reject a research paper.
  • The Editor’s decisions to accept or reject a paper for publication should be based purely on merit, academic standards and professional demands of the journal.
  • The Editor must justify the reason (s) of rejecting a research paper to author(s). This may include:
    ■ Failure to fit in the scope of the journal (may be communicated after preliminary review)
    ■ Insufficient depth of content
    ■ Major errors related to design, analysis, write up and format
    ■ Any misconduct or conflicting factors (e.g. plagiarism, copyright infringement, legal issues, fake data, authorship issues)
  • The Editor is required to timely communicate the editorial decision to the author(s),
  • The Editors should not reverse decisions in favor or against author(s) on their own.


13. Establishing a Procedure for Appeal

  • The Editor is responsible for establishing a proper mechanism for appeals launched against:
    ■ The rejection of a research paper.
    ■ Objections to publications causing harm to any party.
    ■ Infringement of Ethical boundaries in any manner.
    Ethical Guidelines for the Author(s)
    The following ethical guidelines are obligatory for all author(s) violation of which may result in application of penalties by the editor, including but not limited to the suspension or revocation of publishing privileges.
    Reporting Standards
  • It is the author(s)’ responsibility to ensure that the research report and data contain adequate detail and references to the sources of information in order to allow others to reproduce the results.
  • Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.
    Originality and Plagiarism
  • It is the author(s)’ responsibility to ascertain that s/he has submitted an entirely original work, giving due credit, by virtue of proper citations, to the works and/or words of others where they have been used.
  • Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is not acceptable.
  • Material quoted verbatim from the author(s)’ previously published work or other sources must be placed in quotation marks.
  • As per HEC’s policy, in case the manuscript has a similarity index of more than 19%, it will either be rejected or left at the discretion of the Editorial Board for the purposes of a conditional acceptance.
  • Authors are required to provide an undertaking / declaration stating that the manuscript under consideration contains solely their original work that is not under consideration for publishing in any other journal in any form.
  • Authors may submit a manuscript previously published in abstracted form, for e.g. in the proceedings of an annual meeting, or in a periodical with limited circulation and availability such as reports by the Government agencies or a University.
  • A manuscript that is co-authored must be accompanied by an undertaking explicitly stating that each author has contributed substantially towards the preparation of the manuscript in order to claim right to authorship.
  • It is the responsibility of the corresponding author that s/he has ensured that all those who have substantially contributed in the manuscripts have been included in the author list and they have agreed to the order of authorship.
    Multiple, Redundant and Current Publication
  • Authors should not submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research to more than one journal or publication except if is a re-submission of a rejected or withdrawn manuscript.
  • Authors may re-publish previously conducted research that has been substantially altered or corrected using more meticulous analysis or by adding more data.
  • The authors and editor must agree to the secondary publication, which must cite the primary references and reflect the same data and interpretation of the primary document.
  • Concurrent submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal is unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
    Acknowledgment of Sources
  • A paper must always contain proper acknowledgment of the work of others, including clear indications of the sources of all information quoted or offered, except what is common knowledge.
  • The author(s) must also acknowledge the contributions of people, organizations and institutes who assisted the process of research, including those who provided technical help, writing assistance or financial funding (in the acknowledgement).
  • It is duty of the author(s) to conduct a literature review and properly cite the original publications that describe closely related work.
    Authorship Credit
  • Authorship of the work may only be credited to those who have made a noteworthy contribution in conceptualization, design, conducting, data analysis and writing up of the manuscript.
  • It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to include the name(s) of only those co- authors who have made significant contributions to the work.
  • The corresponding author should ensure that all co- authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication. Others who have participated in certain substantive aspect of the research should be acknowledged for their contribution in an “Acknowledgement” section.
    Privacy of Participants
  • Authors must respect the privacy of the participant of research and must not use any information obtained from them without their informed consent.
  • Authors should ensure that only information that improves understanding of the study is shared.
  • Authors must ensure that in instances where the identity of the participant needs to be revealed in the study, explicit and informed consent of the concerned party is obtained.
  • In the case of the demise of a participant, consent must be obtained from the family of the deceased.
    Data Access and Retention
  • If any question arises about the accuracy or validity of the research work during the review process, the author(s) should provide raw data to the Editor.
  • The author(s) should ensure that images included in an account of research performed or in the data collection as part of the research are free from manipulation,
  • The author(s) must provide an accurate description of how the images were generated and produced.
    Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest
  • The potential and relevant competing financial, personal, social or other interest of all author(s) that might be affected by publication of the results contained in the manuscript must be conveyed to the editor.
  • The author(s) should disclose any potential conflict of interest at the earliest possible stage, including but not limited to employment, consultancies, honoraria, patent applications/registrations, grants or other funding.
  • All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed alongside a brief overview of the role played, if any by the responses during various stages of the research.
    Authors may have to sign an agreement allowing the journal to reserve the right to circulate the article and all other derivative works such as translations.
    Manuscript Acceptance and Rejection
  • The review period can last between 1-2 months or longer and during this period the author(s) reserve the right to contact the Editor to ask about status of the review.
  • Once the review process has been completed, the author will be informed about the status of the manuscript which could either be an acceptance, rejection or revisions. In the case of rejection, the author(s) reserves the right to publish the article elsewhere.
  • In case of revisions, the author(s) must provide an exposition of all corrections made in the manuscript and the revised manuscript should, then, go through the process of affirmation of revisions and be accepted or rejected accordingly.
  • In case of dissatisfaction over the decision of rejection, the author can appeal the decision by contacting the Editor.
    Ethical Guidelines For the Reviewers
    Review of the manuscript by reviewers is not only an essential component of formal scholarly engagement, but is also a fundamental step in the publication process as it aids Editor in the editorial decision making. It also allows author(s) improve their manuscript through editorial communications. Scholars accepting to review a research paper have an ethical responsibility to complete this assignment professionally. The quality, credibility and reputation of a journal also depend on the peer review process. The peer review process depends on the trust, and demands that a reviewer is supposed to fulfill ethically. These professionals are the momentum arm of the review process, but they may be performing this job without any formal training. As a consequence, they may be (especially young professionals) unaware of their ethical obligations. The Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan wants to list down ‘Ethical Guidelines for Reviewers’ so that all reviewers provide their valuable services in a standardized manner.
    Suitability and Promptness
    The Reviewers should:
  • Inform the Editor, if they do not have the subject expertise required to carry out the review and s/he should inform the Editor immediately after receiving a request.
  • Be responsible to act promptly and submit review report on time.
  • Immediately inform the Editor of any possible delays and suggest another date of submission for a review report, and
  • Not unnecessarily delay the review process, either by prolonged delay in submission of their review or by requesting unnecessary additional data/information from the Editor or author(s).
    Standards of Objectivity
  • The reviews should be objectively carried out with a consideration of high academic, scholarly and scientific standards.
  • All judgments should be meticulously established and maintained in order to ensure the full comprehension of the reviewer’s comments by the editors and the author(s).
  • Both reviewers and author(s) in rebuttal should avoid unsupported assertions,
  • The reviewer may justifiably criticize a manuscript but it would be inappropriate to resort to personal criticism on the author(s), and
  • The reviewers should ensure that their decision is purely based on the quality of the research paper and not influenced, either positively or negatively, by any personal, financial, or other conflicting considerations or by intellectual bias.
    Disclosure and Conflict of Interest
  • A reviewer should not, for the purpose of his/her own research, use unpublished material disclosed in a submitted manuscript, without the approval of the Editor.
  • The data included in the research paper is confidential and the reviewer shall not be allowed to use if for his/her personal study,
  • A reviewer must declare any potentially conflicting interests (e.g. personal, financial, intellectual, professional, political or religious). In such situation, s/he will be required to follow the journal’s policies.
  • A reviewer should be honest enough to declare conflicts of interest, if, the research paper under review is the same as to his/her presently conducted study.
  • If the reviewer feels unqualified to separate his/her bias, s/he should immediately return the manuscript to the Editor without review, and justify to him/her about the situation.
  • Reviewers should consider the research paper as a confidential document and must not discuss its content on any platform except in cases where professional advice is being sought with the authorization of the Editor, and
  • Reviewers are professionally and ethically bound not to disclose the details of any research paper prior to its publication without the prior approval of the Editor.
    Ethical Considerations
  • If the reviewer suspects that the research paper is almost the same as someone else’s work, s/he will ethically inform the Editor and provide its citation as a reference.
  • If the reviewer suspects that results in the research paper to be untrue/unrealistic/fake, s/he will share it with the Editor,
  • If there has been an indication of violating ethical norms in the treatment of human beings (e.g. children, female, poor people, disabled, elderly, etc), then this should be identified to the Editor, and
  • If the research paper is based on any previous research study or is replica of an earlier work, or the work is plagiarized for e.g. the author has not acknowledged/referenced others’ work appropriately, then this should be brought in the Editor’s knowledge.
    For evaluating originality, the reviewers should consider the following elements:
    ■ Does the research paper add to existing knowledge?
    ■ Are the research questions and/or hypotheses in line with the objective of the research work?
    If the layout and format of the paper is not according to the prescribed version, the reviewers should discuss it with the Editor or should include this observation in their review report. On the other hand, if the research paper is exceptionally well written, the reviewer may overlook the formatting issues. At other times, the reviewers may suggest restructuring the paper before publication. The following elements should be carefully evaluated:
    ■ If there is serious problem of language or expression and the reviewer gets the impression that the research paper does not fulfill linguistic requirements and readers would face difficulties reading and comprehending the paper. The reviewer should record this deficiency in his/her report and suggest the editor to make its proper editing. Such a situation may arise when the author(s)’ native language is not English.
    ■ Whether the data presented in the paper is original or reproduced from previously conducted or published work. The papers which reflect originality should be given preference for publication.
    ■ The clarity of illustrations including photographs, models, charts, images and figures is essential to note. If there is duplication then it should be reported in the review report. Similarly, descriptions provided in the “Results” section should correspond with the data presented in tables/figures, if not then it should be clearly listed in the review report.
    ■ Critically review the statistical analysis of the data. Also check the rational and appropriateness of the specific analysis.
    ■ The reviewers should read the “Methodology” section in detail and make sure that the author(s) has demonstrated the understanding of the procedures being used and presented in the manuscript.
    ■ The relationship between “Data, Findings and Discussion” requires a thorough evaluation thoroughly. Unnecessary conjecture or unfounded conclusions that are not based on the presented data are not acceptable.
    ■ Further questions to be addressed are whether: the organization of the research paper is appropriate or deviates from the standard or prescribed format?
    ■ Does the author(s) follow the guidelines prescribed by the journal for preparation and submission of the manuscript?
    ■ Is the research paper free from typographical errors?
    Review Report
  • The reviewer must explicitly write his/her observations in the section of ‘comments’ because author(s) will only have access to the comments reviewers have made,
  • For writing a review report, the reviewers are requested to complete a prescribed form (s).
  • It is helpful for both the Editor and author(s) if the reviewer writes a brief summary in the first section of the review report. This summary should comprise the reviewer’s final decision and inferences drawn from a full review.
  • Any personal comments on author(s) should be avoided and final remarks should be written in a courteous and positive manner,
  • Indicating any deficiencies is important. For the understanding of the Editor and author(s), the reviewers should highlight these deficiencies in some detail with specificity. This should help justify the comments made by the reviewer,
  • When a reviewer makes a decision regarding the research paper, it should be clearly indicated as ‘Reject’, ‘Accept without revision’, or ‘Need Revision’ and either of the decisions should have justification.
  • The reviewers should indicate the revisions clearly and comprehensively, and show willingness to confirm the revisions submitted by the author(s), if Editor wishes so, and
  • The final decision about publishing a research paper (either accept or reject) will solely rest with the Editor and it is not a reviewer’s job to take part in this decision. The editor will surely consider reviewer’s comments and have a right to send the paper for another opinion or send it back to the author(s) for revision before making the final decision.


(HEC Policy, Prepared by Prof. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar, Director Institute of Applied and Clinical Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore)

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Ms. Ayesha Abbasi
Senior Research Officer
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Ayesha Abbasi is working as a Senior Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. Her fields of interest include geopolitics (with a special focus on U.S. foreign policy), international security, nuclear politics, nuclear strategy, arms control/disarmament, environmental security, and climate change. Previously, she has worked with Pakistan’s Strategic Plans Division as an International Relations Analyst at the Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Branch. She continues to contribute to national dailies on issues of her interest. Abbasi holds an M. Phil degree in Strategic and Nuclear Studies from National Defence University, and a Bachelors of Science degree in Environmental Science from Bahria University, Islamabad.

Sabeen Malik
Research Assistant
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Ms. Sabeen Malik is a Research Assistant at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). She holds an M. Phil degree in International Relations from National Defence University, Islamabad. Her research interests include Pakistan’s Foreign Policy Affairs, Geopolitics in Indian Ocean, Non-traditional Security, and Climate Change. Her M. Phil’s dissertation was on “Climate Change Policy Responses: A Comparative Analysis of India and Pakistan”. She also contributes opinion articles in prominent newspapers and magazines.

Ms Maryyum Masood
Research Officer
Associate Editor CISS Insight Journal
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Ms Maryyum Masood is Research Officer at the Center. She holds a B.Sc. degree in Defense and Diplomatic Studies from Fatima Jinnah Women University. Her seminar paper was titled “Geopolitics of South China Sea.” Her research interests are nuclear policy and development in South Asia. She regularly publishes on contemporary issues in prominent newspapers and magazines.

Syed Sadam Hussain Shah​
Research Assistant
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Syed Sadam Hussain Shah worked as Research Assistant at CISS. His research focuses on International Cyber, Technology and Nuclear Policy issues. He has participated in a Track-2 dialogue on South Asian Strategic Stability in Istanbul. His research has been published in leading international journals and think tanks including the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, CSIS Washington D.C., and Anthology Series for Strategic Studies Canada. He has presented papers at the Shanghai University in China and Karadeniz Teknik University in Turkey. He is currently working as a review editor for the Journal of Politics and Sustainability. He graduated from National Defence University, Islamabad with an MSc in International Relations.

Mr Samran Ali
Research Officer
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Mr Samran Ali is Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. He has studied at the Department of Defence and Strategic Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. His areas of interest include nuclear arms control and non-proliferation, nuclear and strategic issues, emerging technologies, strategic capabilities, as well as conventional arms in South Asia. He has published in various issues of the CISS Insight journal. He has also written in national and international publications including South Asian Voices, The National Interest, The Express Tribune, CSCR Islamabad, Hilal, etc. He is also part of the CTBTO-CENESS Research Fellowship 2022.

Mr Riaz A. Khokhar
Research Officer
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Mr Riaz Khokhar was Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad, Pakistan. He was also an Asia Studies Visiting Fellow at the East-West Center in Washington in 2019. His research interests are geopolitics and strategy, foreign policy, nuclear politics, and strategic stability issues in South Asia. His analysis has appeared in peer-reviewed journals CISS Insight and the Asia Pacific Issues, and opinion platforms, including Atlantic Council’s South Asia Source, Stimson Center’s South Asian Voices, The National Interest, The Diplomat, Asia Pacific Bulletin, The News International, Newsweek Pakistan, and 9Dashline. He has also made speaking engagements at a public seminar in East-West Center in Washington and webinars of Stimson Center and Asian Institute of Diplomacy and International Affairs.

Ms Afeera Firdous
Associate Research Officer
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Ms Afeera Firdous was Associate Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. She holds an M. Phil degree in Strategic Studies from National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. Her M. Phil thesis was on “Counter-terrorism in Cyberspace: Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and India”. Her research interests include counter-extremism, counter-terrorism, cyber and information warfare.

Mr Sufian Ullah
Senior Research Officer
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Sufian Ullah was Senior Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). He holds an M.Phil degree in Strategic & Nuclear Studies, from National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. His areas of interest include the nuclear policies of various nuclear weapons States and the geo-politics in the Indian Ocean Region. His current work investigates the developing naval competition among regional States and also the emerging dynamics of sea-based nuclear deterrence in South Asia.

Ms Maimuna Ashraf
Research Officer
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Ms Maimuna Ashraf was Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan. She is a former Visiting Fellow at South Asian Voices (SAV), the Stimson Center in Washington D.C. Previously, she was associated with an Islamabad based think-tank, Strategic Vision Institute (SVI), Islamabad as Senior Research Associate. Ms. Ashraf has been participating in national as well as international certificate courses/trainings on areas of her research that includes nuclear nonproliferation, arms control, weapons of mass destruction and nuclear doctrines/postures with special reference to South Asia. She presented her research work at international workshops/seminars including Atlantic Council, Stimson Center and European Union Nonproliferation and Disarmament Consortium. She also has been a coordinator and contributor for various national conferences/seminars. She holds an M.Phil. in International Relations from Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Her M.Phil. dissertation focused on Nuclear Disaster Management in Pakistan. Her writings have appeared in The National Interest, South Asian Voices, CISS Strategic Insight, International Policy Digest, The News International and various dailies on issues of her interest.

Mr Muhammad Sarmad Zia
Research Fellow
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Mr Muhammad Sarmad Zia was Research Fellow at the Centre of International Strategic Studies (CISS). He is also the Assistant Editor of the Center’s Bi-annual Journal CISS Insight. He holds an M.Phil. Degree in Defence and Strategic Studies from Quaid-i-Azam University. His areas of interest include foreign and defence policies of global and regional powers, nuclear strategy and stability, arms control and nonproliferation policy. His MPhil thesis is titled ‘Russia’s Defence Policy: A case-study of Putin Era (1999-2016)’. He has previously interned at the Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Directorate of Pakistan’s Strategic Plans Division, worked at Dawn News as a trainee sub-editor and interned at the Institute of Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis (ISSRA) at the National Defence University (NDU). He writes opinion pieces in newspapers and runs an online blog on regional and international strategic issues. He can be reached at

Mr Saadain Gardezi
Research Intern
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Mr Saadain Gardezi was Research Intern at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). He is a student of Bachelors in Strategic Studies at National Defence University, Islamabad. His research interests include Traditional and Non-Traditional Security Paradigms and the strategic implications of the rise of China and Russia in Eurasian and the Global World Order.

Ms Huma Rehman
Associate Director
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Ms Huma Rehman was Associate Director research at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan, where she works on various aspects of Strategic security issues; International Security, Nuclear/Missile Proliferation, WMD Terrorism, Arms Control/Disarmament, Conflict management and Resolution. Among her academic degrees, she holds M.Phil degree in Defense and Strategic Studies from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. She has also completed her fellowship at Monterey Institute International Studies (MIIS) on Nuclear Non-Proliferation Studies, California-US. She also worked as a research fellow at Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-New Mexico-US. She has received a certificate on Nuclear Safeguards Policy Middlebury Institute International Studies (MIIS) on Nuclear Non-Proliferation Studies, California-US. She has also taught Strategic Studies courses as a Visiting Lecturer in Islamabad University. Ms. Rehman has been part of internationally arranged track two programs between Pakistan and India. She contributes articles, and book reviews in ‘CISS Insight’ on South Asian and international strategic issues. She also writes in Newspapers and participates in Television Talk Shows.

Ms Saima Aman Sial
Associate Editor
Senior Research Officer
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Ms Saima Aman Sial was Senior Research Officer and expert in strategic issues at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. She is also the associate editor of CISS Insight, a biannual journal of the Center. Aman is a former Nonproliferation Fellow the Center for Nonproliferation Studies Monterey California, Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Education Center, South Korea and Sandia National Laboratories, USA. She has an M.Phil in Strategic Studies from National Defence University. Her dissertation related to “Evolution of Pakistan’s Naval Strategic Thought: For an assured second strike Capability”. She has participated in several national as well as international certificate courses/trainings on nuclear science and technology, safety and security of radioactive sources, nonproliferation and arms control, Chemical weapons Convention (assistance and protection) and nuclear disarmament.

Previously, she served as a research coordinator and Senior Research Associate in Center for Pakistan and Gulf Studies and Strategic Technology Resources respectively. She has an experience of working with Pakistan’s Strategic Plans Division as an Assistant Director – Research in its Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Directorate for some years. She has conducted research on a variety of subjects including nuclear strategy, doctrines, safety and security, command and control systems, multilateral export controls, Indian Ocean geostrategy, arms control and nonproliferation policy with special reference to South Asia.

She is a frequent contributor in national and international conferences relating to strategic issues, including being a part of India-Pakistan Track II engagements. She also contributes in national dailies on South Asian deterrence, nonproliferation, export control and nuclear policy issues and has been adjunct faculty at Bahria University Islamabad.

Syed Muhammad Ali
Senior Research Fellow
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Syed Muhammad Ali is a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. Pakistan. He is widely published, interviewed and quoted on geopolitical, strategic, nuclear and security issues, both nationally and internationally. He is a frequent participant in various international Track-2 engagements and regular commentator at policy forums, thinks tank and universities on strategic and nuclear issues. Earlier, he has taught Dimensions of Modern Strategy, Foreign Policy Analysis and Comparative Politics at the National Defence University and served as a Course Coordinator and member of the NDU disciplinary committee. He designed and introduced over 30 new courses, which are currently being taught at M.Sc, M.Phil and PhD levels and also reviewed Higher Education Commission’s curriculum of International Relations. He also teaches at the Foreign Service Academy of Pakistan and has a rich and diverse international exposure of both government and multinational organizations. Earlier, he has served as a correspondent at the Voice of America at its Washington, D.C headquarters and Pakistan Television Ltd., Islamabad, respectively. He has also served as Controller at the Cross Media Ltd., a London-based Japanese media company and auditor/consultant at the PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), world’s largest consultancy firm. His diverse portfolio at the PwC included some of the world’s leading energy giants like Shell, Schlumberger, OMV, Premier Oil, large telecom companies such as Ericsson, PTCL and private organizations such as Agha Khan Foundation and GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology.

Dr. Mansoor Ahmed
Advisory Board Member of CISS Insight
Senior Research Fellow
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Dr. Mansoor Ahmed was Senior Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan. He is a former Stanton Junior Faculty Fellow (2015-16) and Postdoctoral Research Fellow (2016-18) with the Managing the Atom Project/International Security Program at the Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center. He was also an MTA Associate for 2018-2019.

Previously, he was a Visiting Research Scholar at the Cooperative Monitoring Center, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, N.M., USA in 2013.

He has also served as a Lecturer in the Department of Defence and Strategic Studies (DSS), Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU), Islamabad from 2011 to 2015, and as Visiting Faculty in the Department of Strategic and Nuclear Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad from 2009-2011.

Before joining the academia, he worked in the Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service from July 2003 to January 2011.

Dr. Ahmed holds a PhD in International Relations from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. His research interests include various aspects of Pakistani and Indian nuclear programs and policies; fissile materials, non-proliferation, arms control and strategic stability issues with special reference to South Asia. His research work has been published by the Belfer Center, the Stimson Center, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the US Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.

Mr Zawar Haider Abidi
Senior Research Fellow
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Mr Zawar Haider Abidi is a former military officer. He has served in Pakistan Army for over 26 years on various assignments. He has also served in Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Branch Strategic Plans Division, secretariat of the Pakistan National Command Authority from October 2001 to Nov 2012. He has been a visiting fellow at the Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington D.C, USA (2003), and a visiting fellow at the James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies, Monterey, California, USA. (2010).

He has been an expert consultant supporting United Nation Security Council (UNSC) 1540 Committee for a period of five years from November 2012 to Nov 2017 to monitor the implementation of UNSC resolution 1540 by the UN Member States.

While in Pakistan Army he has been on the faculty of number of training institutions. In Arms Control and Disarmament Branch SPD he has worked on issues related to non-proliferation, arms control, strategic trade management, research and outreach. He has been part of inter-agency groups responsible for, drafting Pakistan’s Export Control Act 2004, designing and establishment of Strategic Export Control Division of Pakistan, compilation of Pakistan’s National Control List and an inter-agency group developing the architecture for deployment of Radiological Portal Monitors on all land, air and sea border crossing for exercising effective border control. Zawar Haider Abidi has served as visiting faculty at the Defence and Strategic Studies Department at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (2008). He has participated in number of international conferences, seminars and workshops on non-proliferation and strategic trade management.

Due to his stay at United States as an Expert Consultant supporting UNSC 1540 Committee he has a unique experience in implementation of WMD non-proliferation in general and UNSC resolution 1540 in particular, at the global level. He has participated in number of international conferences, seminars and workshops on non-proliferation and strategic trade management. He has an in-depth understanding and knowledge of implementing laws and regulations with regard to CWC, BWC, NPT and their means of delivery of twenty-three UN Member States of Asian Region including the SAARC Member States.

Dr. Syed Javaid Khurshid
Senior Research Fellow
Member Advisory Board CISS Insight Journal
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Dr. Syed Javaid Khurshid was Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS). His special interest is in Nuclear Knowledge Management, Nuclear Energy, Climate Change, and Nuclear Techniques for achieving SDGs, Science, Nuclear, and BioDiplomacy. His expertise is in the Mitigation and Control of CBRN. He is Secretary National Member Organization, IIASA Laxenburg, Austria. He is Member Technical Committee of HEC-MoFA Internal Compliance Committee on Export Control Laws. Dr. Javaid is a Fellow of the Chemical & Nuclear Society of Pakistan and also served as President of Pakistan Nuclear Society from 2016-2018.

Dr. Javaid is an approved Ph.D. supervisor of the Higher Education Commission (HEC). He is a member of Editorial/Advisory Board of the Journal of Center for International Strategic Studies, Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefence, Journal of Security & Strategic Analyses and Global Affairs Magazine. He is also an Associate Editor of the Journal of JPMS, USA. He has 73 publications in international/national journals, 12 international proceedings, 02 National Guidelines, 15 research reports, 25 articles, 66 presentations. He is listed as Productive Scientists of Pakistan with an Impact Factor of 196 and Google Scholar Citation of 220. He has been a visiting faculty at several Pakistani Universities.

Dr. Javaid worked for Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for 40 years in different capacities as Consultant/Advisor/Director General/Director of Planning, Development & Projects Coordination, Director Biosciences. As Director Biosciences from 1999-2006 he has developed 9 cancer hospitals. He is an expert on Project Planning, Preparation, Management, Monitoring & Evaluation. He was Project Director of Development and Monitoring cell at P&D. He was Director at Large of Planning Management Institute, PA USA (Islamabad Chapter). 

He was a member of the Inter-ministerial committee of Biological Weapon Control MoFA, Government of Pakistan. Presented Pakistan as a technical expert to UN meetings on Biological Weapon Convention (BWC) and a State Party representative to UN on BWC meetings & helped in making the legislation on dual-use products.

He worked as an Executive Secretary of prestigious Abdus Salam International Nathiagali Summer College from 2006-2016 and Founder Member of Friends of ICTP. He helped disseminate knowledge & motivate research teams by arranging College every year on Cutting Edge Technologies with the support of Abdus Salaam International Centre of Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, US-National Science Foundation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Centre of European Nuclear Research (CERN).

Brigadier (Retired) Dr. Naeem Salik
Editor in Chief
Senior Research Fellow
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Brigadier (Retired) Dr. Naeem Salik is a Ph.D. in Political Science and International Relations from the University of Western Australia. He holds a Master’s in International Politics and Strategic Studies from the University of Wales, UK and a Master’s in History from the Punjab University. He has been a visiting fellow at the Stimson Centre, Stanford University, Brookings Institution and School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.

He has served in the Pakistan Army in a variety of assignments for 33 years including a fairly long tenure as Director Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs at the Strategic Plans Division. He has taught post-graduate courses at the Department of Defence & Strategic Studies at the Quaid-i-Azam University from 1994 to 2005. He also taught Masters and M Phil courses at the Strategic & Nuclear Studies Department at National Defence University, Islamabad.

He has attended numerous international conferences and track-2 initiatives and has published over 30 research articles and book chapters on strategic and security issues. His book ‘Genesis of South Asian Nuclear Deterrence’ was published by the Oxford University Press in 2009. His second book on “Learning to Live with The Bomb – Pakistan 1998-2016” came out in 2017 and is a valuable addition to the subject. He is working as a Senior Research Fellow at CISS, Islamabad.

Mr. Iftikhar Uddin Hasan
Research Coordinator
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Iftikhar Uddin Hasan was the Editor of biannual journal of the center CISS Insight. He is also the Research Coordinator at the center. Apart from his editorial responsibilities, he also supervises and guides researchers to ensure that work done by the research team meet the necessary requirements.

He has an experience of working as the Editor of Pakistan Army Journal and Pakistan Defence Review, published by Pakistan Army for over three years. Hasan has a long teaching experience in Pakistan’s military institutions spread over several decades. He also has to his credit the establishment and management of a school system for low-paid industrial workers in the KPK.

Mr Yasir Mehmood
A.D Finance & Administration / H.R Coordinator,
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Mr. Yasir Mehmood was Active Director (AD) Finance & Administration / H.R Coordinator at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan, where he deals with administration matters, human resource and financial reports and responsible for  audit, monitoring, upgrading and tax compliance. He has experience of different projects as research associate, an organizer of SME and Entrepreneurship, Participated as a presenter in Marketing Presentation Gala (MPG) and also organized 3rd National Universities of Modern Languages (NUML) job fair.

Mr. Mehmood holds Masters in Business Administration. His career appointment includes Soneri Bank Limited, as an Operation Officer, Askari Bank Limited as a Personal Financial Consultant. His areas of specialization are: Branch Banking, Commercial Banking, Credit Analysis, Risk Management, Employee Orientation, Operational Excellence, Organizational Charts management, Employee Relations, Development & Implementation of Accounts, Administration and HR Policies and Procedures. He is currently pursuing his M.Phil in Management Sciences.

Ms Tooba Rizwan
Research Intern
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Ms Tooba Rizwan was Research Intern at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). She is a student of Bachelors in Strategic Studies at National Defence University, Islamabad. Her research interests include the Global Non-Proliferation Regime & US-China geopolitics with special focus on their implications on South Asia.

Ms. Summaiya Malik
Research Assistant
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Ms. Summaiya Malik is a Research Assistant at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). She holds an MPhil degree in International Relations from National Defense University, Islamabad and has previously worked under ISSRA, NDU as a researcher. Her research interests are peaceful use of nuclear technology, Strategic stability in South Asia, Foreign and Defense Policy Affairs of Pakistan. She has published on various contemporary issues in CGSS Writer’s Column.

Dr Rahat Iqbal
Associate Director Research
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Dr Rahat Iqbal is Associate Director Research at the Center for International Strategic Studies, Islamabad. She has pursued her doctorate in the field of strategic studies from department of International Relations, University of Peshawar. Besides her doctorate she has also gained sufficient experience in project/program design, planning, research, monitoring and evaluation in both humanitarian, health, education and development scenarios.  Apart from that she has excellent interpersonal, communication, motivational, conflict management and resolution skills with informed decision-making abilities. She has her interest in the areas of nuclear studies, arms control and disarmament, foreign policy, strategic studies, national security etc.

Mr Muhammad Ali Baig
Research Officer
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Mr Baig holds a Masters degree in Defence and Strategic Studies from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. He has research experience at Pak-Afghan Youth Forum (PAYF), Kashmir Institute of International Relations (KIIR), Islamabad and Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR), Rawalpindi. His experiences are related to domestic and international security, foreign policy, fifth-generation warfare and global human rights practices.

He has multiple publications on various issues such as Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, arms control and disarmament, Indian military modernization, emerging technologies and their impact on conventional and nuclear deterrence.

Mr. Syed Ali Abbas
Research Officer/Media Officer/Managing Editor CISS Insight
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Syed Ali Abbas is Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan. He is also the Co-Founding Editor of Global Defense Insight, an online defense media forum. Previously, Syed worked as associate editor at Indus News Network. His area of interests are Middle East Politics, Foreign Policy, and Nuclear Politics.  He writes on various platforms in areas of his interests.

Mr Fakhar Alam
Research Officer
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Mr. Fakhar Alam is Research Officer at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. He holds a bachelor’s (BS) degree in Strategic and Nuclear Studies from National Defence University, Islamabad. Before joining CISS, he has been an intern at the Institute of Regional Studies (IRS), Islamabad. His research interests are Arms control and Disarmament, Non-Proliferation Regime, South Asian Strategic Stability and Revolution in Military Affairs.

Saliha Mehboob
Ms. Saliha Mehboob
Research Officer
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Saliha Mehboob is working with Center for International Security Studies (CISS). She holds an MPhil degree from the department of School of Politics and International Relations, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. Her MPhil thesis is hinged on ‘Environmental Politics, Regimes and Global Governance’. Previously, she was engaged with diverse research undertakings being a part of Senate Secretariat and academia. Apart from other domains of International Relations, she is keen to dive head-first into research ventures along the lines of Nuclear and Strategic Stability, Emerging Technologies, Nuclear Regimes and Cartels, Non-Traditional Security Threats, Economics of Defence.

Mr Mobeen Jafar Mir
Research Officer
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Mobeen Jafar Mir is Research Officer at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad, Pakistan (2022-Present). He holds a Master’s Degree in International Relations from National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. Prior to joining CISS, he served as Research Assistant at Islamabad Policy Institute (IPI). His research areas include Pakistan’s foreign policy, defence, emerging non-traditional security threats and human rights. He regularly writes for national and international newspapers.

Mr Murad Ali
Research Officer
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Murad Ali is Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. He received his M.Phil in international relations from the University of Peshawar and M.S. in international relations from the National Defence University Islamabad. Prior to joining CISS, he worked as a lecturer in the University of Swabi’s department of peace and conflict studies, where he is credited for establishing international relations as a distinct field of study under the purview of the department of peace and conflict studies. His research work focuses on international security, strategic stability, nuclear studies, foreign policy, and weapons control and disarmament.

Mr Abdul Moiz Khan
Research Officer
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Abdul Moiz Khan works with CISS as Research Officer. He previously worked as Research and Teaching Assistant at School of Politics and IR, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. He has Bachelors in Political Science from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. He also wrote research articles for BASIC, UK based think tank. His research interests include Emerging Technologies, Strategic Stability, Military Modernization, Strategic Doctrine and South Asia.

Dr Muhammadi
Associate Director Research
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Dr. Muhammadi is Associate Director Research at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. He holds a Ph.D. in Politics & International Relations from the School of International Relations and Public Affairs (SIRPA), Shanghai International Studies University (SISU), Shanghai, PR China.

Before joining CISS, he served as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Politics and International Studies, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan. He has also served more than six years with the District Administration Department Government of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.

His research areas and interests include China-South Asia Relations, Belt & Road Initiative/CPEC, Non-Traditional Security, Foreign policy analysis, Pakistan’s Nuclear Program and Policy, Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology, and Emerging Technologies.

 His research articles have been published in international and national peer review journals. He also writes opinions/articles for various online platforms and dailies, including the National Interest, Daily Times, World Geostrategic Insights, Global Village Space (GVS), and Eurasia Review.

Ms Anum A. Khan
Associate Director Research
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Ms Anum A. Khan is Associate Director Research at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. She has worked with Pakistan’s Strategic Plans Division as an International Relations Analyst at the Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Branch. She is currently enrolled in Ph. D program of Defence and Diplomatic Studies at Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad and is a visiting Ph.D. scholar at the School of History, Politics and International Relations at the University of Leicester, UK. She holds an M.Phil Degree in Strategic and Nuclear Studies from National Defence University, Islamabad and BS (Hon’s) in Media and Communication Studies from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Her areas of interests include issues related to Deterrence and Strategic Stability, Non-Proliferation, Nuclear Export Control Cartels including Nuclear Suppliers Group, Arms Control and Disarmament.

Ms Amna Saqib
Research Officer
Managing Editor CISS Insight Journal
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Ms Amna Saqib is Research Officer at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. She holds an M.Phil degree in International Relations from National Defense University (NDU), Islamabad. She has worked as Visiting Faculty member at SPIR, QAU Islamabad, and NDU, Islamabad and she has also been an intern at Arms Control Disarmament Affairs, Directorate of Pakistan’s Strategic Plan Division.  Her area of interests include Foreign Policies of Major Powers, International Security, Global Nuclear Politics and Nuclear Strategies. She contributes articles to the National dailies on issues of her interest.

Mr Muhammad Shakir
Senior Research Officer
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Muhammad Shakir is Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). He holds M.Sc. degree in Strategic & Nuclear Studies, from the National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. His areas of interests include Arms Control & Disarmament, Nonproliferation of WMDs, and Nuclear Discourse in South Asia.

Mr Yasir Hussain
Associate Director Research
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Yasir Hussain is serving as Associate Director Research at CISS. He holds an M. Phil Degree in International Relations from School of Politics and International Relations, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. Yasir is also a former South Asia Fellow at Stimson Center US, where he presented India and Pakistan’s cases for Nuclear Suppliers Group Membership. Prior to that, he has represented Pakistan in Turkey. He was offered Turkish President’s office of diplomacy fellowship. His research contributions have been published in leading national and international dailies including, The News, Express Tribune, China’s leading newspaper, Global Times and The Hill. His research areas include Nuclear Dynamics in South Asia and issues related to nuclear non-proliferation.

Ms Tooba Mansoor
Senior Research Officer
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Ms. Tooba Mansoor is Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). She holds M.Phil Degree in International Relations from Quaid–e–Azam University Islamabad. Her areas of interest are Arms Control & Disarmament, Nonproliferation and Counter Proliferation.

Ahsan Ali Zahid
Mr Ahsan Ali Zahid
Senior Research Officer
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Mr. Ahsan holds an M. Phil degree from the School of Politics and International Relations at the Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. His research interests are strategic studies, nuclear non-proliferation, modern warfare, and technology. His work has been published in many national and international newspapers, and magazines.

Mr Hasan Ehtisham
Senior Research Officer
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Mr. Hasan Ehtisham is Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. He holds an M. Phil degree in Strategic Studies from QAU. His analytical research work contributes to the topics of geopolitics, terrorism, conflict resolution, military strategies, Pakistan’s nuclear strategy, non-proliferation regime, arms control, and disarmament.

Ms Tooba Ghaffar
Research Assistant
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Ms Tooba Ghaffar was Assistant Researcher at the Center. She holds a B.A.(Hons) in International Relations. Her primary interest area is Indo-Pak security relations with a special focus on the nuclear deterrence. Her undergrad research involved exploring nuclear deterrence with the lens of stability-instability paradox. She frequently writes on her subject for prominent newspapers.

Mr Sajid Aziz
Research Officer
+92-51-2722343 | +92-51-8315410-423
+92-321-809-5623 | +92-332-133-3918

Mr Sajid Aziz was working as Research Officer at CISS. He holds a Master’s degree in Defense and Strategic Studies (DSS) from Quaid-I-Azam University. His Master’s seminar paper was “Oslo Accords: Prelude to a Durable Peace or Palestinian Capitulation?” His areas of interest include the politics of Middle East, security, strategic and foreign policy issues.

Dr Farooque Ahmed Leghari
Visiting Research Fellow
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Dr Farooque Ahmed Leghari served as Visiting Research Fellow at Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). He has recently finished his PhD in Strategic and Security Studies on “The role of nuclear deterrence in Pakistan’s strategic policy towards India” from School of History, Politics and Strategy, National University of Malaysia. He is presently serving as a lecturer at Department of International Relations at University of Sindh, Jamshoro, since April, 2010. Before joining the university, he had worked with Dawn News and SAMAA TV. He has various publications in international and Pakistani research journals to his credit. He frequently appears on electronic media and shares his analysis on international issues.

Ambassador Ali Sarwar Naqvi
Executive Director CISS

In a long diplomatic career of thirty six years, from 1970 to 2006, which culminated in senior Ambassadorial positions, he also served at the United Nations, both in New York and Vienna, and in Washington D.C, London, Paris and Brussels. In the course of professional work he delivered lectures and speeches on various current affairs issues in seminars, conferences and symposia in national and international forum. He also participates and appears on TV and electronic media, both in Pakistan and abroad. After serving as Pakistan’s Ambassador to Austria and the IAEA, he was appointed Member (Chairman’s Advisory Council) in the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and functioned as Adviser to the Chairman PAEC on International Affairs, with particular focus on IAEA matters.

Ambassador Naqvi is presently serving as the founding Executive Director of the Center. Established in October 2010, The Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) is an independent and autonomous think-tank for research and analysis of current regional and international strategic issues from a Pakistani perspective. It also aims to contribute to the national and international discourse, and thus create greater understanding between Pakistan and other countries.

Other Engagements:

Serving as Distinguished Visiting Fellow (DVF) in the National Defence University, Islamabad since August 2010.

Associated with other Pakistani Research Institutes since November 2009.

Appointed Expert on the Technical Committee of the Department of Defense and Strategic Studies (DSS) of the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad in April 2009.