Plagiarism Guidelines

1. Preamble

In the wake of fundamental improvements being introduced in the system of Higher Education in Pakistan, the credit, respect, recognition of research and scholarly publications, career development and financial gains are now linked with such original works accomplished without replicating the efforts of other researchers. It has therefore become necessary that the menace of plagiarism is highlighted and curbed through exemplary punitive actions. On the other hand, we must also guard against bogus or false complaints in order to prevent victimization which may make researchers and scholars shy away from research simply because of the fear of prosecution. A Plagiarism Policy has therefore become necessary to create awareness, define various forms in which Plagiarism exhibits itself, present a methodology of investigation, cater for punitive action proportional to the extent of the offence and even address the issue of false or spurious complaints.

2. Definition

According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, Plagiarism is defined as “taking and using the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as one’s own”. This, or various similar definitions found in recognized publications / documents, are very broad and can be used to create awareness about Plagiarism but are not practical enough to apply in order to ascertain guilt or innocence in specific cases. In order to establish the violation of ethical norms, or academic or intellectual dishonesty resulting from Plagiarism and to take punitive actions in this regard, it is necessary that the variety of forms in which Plagiarism manifests itself are known. These include but are not limited to the following:
“Verbatim copying, near-verbatim copying, or purposely paraphrasing portions of another author’s paper or unpublished report without citing the exact reference. Copying elements of another author’s paper, such as equations or illustrations that are not common knowledge, or copying or purposely paraphrasing sentences without citing the source. Verbatim copying portions of another author’s paper or from reports by citing but not clearly differentiating what text has been copied (e.g. not applying quotation marks correctly) and /or not citing the source correctly” [1]. “The unacknowledged use of computer programs, mathematical / computer models / algorithms, computer software in all forms, macros, spreadsheets, web pages, databases, mathematical deviations and calculations, designs / models / displays of any sort, diagrams, graphs, tables, drawings, works of art of any sort, fine art pieces or artifacts, digital images, computer-aided design drawings, GIS files, photographs, maps, music / composition of any sort, posters, presentations and tracing.” [2] “Self-plagiarism, that is, the verbatim or near-verbatim re-use of significant portions of one’s own copyrighted work without citing the original source.” [1]

3. Explanation from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia on the web describes and explains Plagiarism as “the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one’s own original work. Unlike cases of forgery, in which the authenticity of the writing, document, or some other kind of object itself is in question, plagiarism is concerned with the issue of false attribution. Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered
academic dishonesty or academic fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. Plagiarism is different from copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they emphasize different aspects of the transgression. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of the copyright holder, which involves the loss of income and artistic control of the material when it is used without the copyright holder’s consent. On the other hand, plagiarism is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author’s reputation. In the academic world, plagiarism by students is a very serious academic offense which can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment (typically at the high school level), or a failing grade for the course (typically at the college or university level). For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases where a student has committed a severe type of plagiarism (e.g. copying an entire article and submitting it as his / her own work), a student may be suspended or expelled, and any academic degrees or awards may be revoked. For professors and researchers, who are required to act as role models for their students, plagiarism is a very serious offence, and is punishable by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and integrity. Charges of plagiarism against students, faculty members and staff are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees, which students and faculty members have agreed to be bound by.” [3] Wikipedia also describes Self-plagiarism as “the re-use of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without citing the original work. Typically, high public-interest texts are not a subject of self-plagiarism; however, the authors should not violate copyright where applicable. “Public-interest texts” include such material as social, professional, and cultural opinions usually published in newspapers and magazines.” [3]

4. Aim: The aim of this policy is to apprise students, teachers, researchers and staff about Plagiarism and how it can be avoided. It is also aimed at discouraging Plagiarism by regulating and authorising punitive actions against those found guilty of the act of Plagiarism.

5. Applicability: The policy is applicable to students, teachers, researchers and staff of all institutions and organizations in Pakistan who are involved in writing or publishing their work. In this context a “Student” is a person who, on the date of submission of his / her paper / work is a registered student of any University or Degree Awarding Institution recognized by Higher Education Commission (HEC). “Teachers and Researchers” include faculty members or equivalent of the University / Organization or/of a constituent or affiliated college or researchers of an organization and such other persons as may be declared to be so by regulations. “Staff” is any employee of an organization involved in writing and publishing his / her work.

Any person listing his CV on the website or any current publication or applying for any benefit on the basis of published or presented work that is plagiarized will be liable to be punished as per prescribed rules.

6. Responsibility of the Institutions & Organizations: All institutions and organizations are responsible to apprise their students, teachers, researchers and staff of the definition, implications and resulting punishments in case, after due investigation, they are found guilty of plagiarism. The institutions / organizations must acquaint their students, teachers, researchers and staff with this policy and ensure that they are fully aware that all authors are deemed to be individually and collectively responsible for the contents of papers published by Journals / Publishers etc. Hence, it is the responsibility of each author, including the coauthors, to ensure that papers submitted for publication should attain the highest ethical standards with respect to plagiarism. To facilitate the institutions / organizations in creating awareness about Plagiarism, a modified version of “Little Book of Plagiarism”, a publication of Leeds Metropolitan University is appended as “Annexure” to this policy. Any University or Degree Awarding Institution which does not adopt and implement this policy will have its degree derecognized by HEC.

7. Reporting: To inform HEC or respective Universities / Organizations of alleged plagiarism, a complaint is to be made by email, post, fax or other means to HEC Quality Assurance Division or respective Universities / Organizations. In case of lodging a complaint in the form of a letter, copy may be sent to HEC. The following information is to be provided:
a) “Citation of the original paper or document or idea which was plagiarized, (paper title, author(s), publication title, month and year of publication if available and the journal, in which published, with details). If the original paper is unpublished (e.g. an institutional technical report, an on-line paper), the complainant is to provide as much information as possible to ensure authenticity of the claim.
b) The citation of the alleged plagiarizing paper (paper title, author(s), publication title, month and year of publication if available and the journal with details in which published). If the paper is unpublished (e.g. an institutional technical report, an on-line paper), the complainant is to provide as much information as possible to ensure proper investigation.
c) Copies of both papers if possible.
d) Any other information that would help HEC or respective Universities / Organizations to efficiently resolve the claim.” [1]
e) Name, designation, organization, address, e-mail address and telephone number of the complainant.
Investigation:

8. Upon receipt of an allegation of Plagiarism, the HEC Quality Assurance Division will request the respective Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization to carry out investigation. The complaints received through HEC or directly by a University / Organization will be dealt with by the Universities / Organizations according to the procedures given below. The Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization will have the discretion of not taking any action on anonymous complaints. For investigation of Plagiarism cases, the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of Organization will have an obligation to:
a) Constitute a “Plagiarism Standing Committee” consisting of 3 senior faculty members, a subject specialist in that particular field is to be co-opted, a senior student (only if a student is being investigated upon) and a nominee of the HEC.The seniority of the members of “Plagiarism Standing Committee” should be of a level keeping in view the seniority of the individual being investigated upon and the nature and gravity of the offence.
b) Provide a guideline, prepared by HEC for the functioning of the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”, to all members of the Committee.
c) Provide clear terms of reference to the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” for their investigation.
d) The members of the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” are to sign a confidentiality statement that during the investigation they will, under no circumstances, disclose any individual author’s name, paper titles, referees, or any other personal or specific information concerning the plagiarism complaint under investigation, nor shall they reveal the names of the committee members.
e) Provide opportunity to the author / authors under investigation to justify the originality of their concepts and research work. Similar opportunity will also be provided to the author whose paper is deemed to have been Plagiarized and / or the complainant, to justify the complaint.
f) Provide every opportunity to the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” to use all foreseeable means to investigate the plagiarism claim.

9. The Plagiarism Standing Committee shall then conduct the investigation. Depending on the details of the claim, the investigation may include, but may not be limited to, any or all of the following steps:
a) Manual and / or automated tests for content similarity [1].
b) Determination of the extent and quantum of significant material plagiarized.
c) Soliciting comments to the claim, from the Editor-in-Chief (of a journal) or Program Chair (of conference proceedings) and referees of either or both papers.
d) Consultation with legal counsel. [1]
e) Consult / contact witnesses and record statements there-of if so required.
f) Consult / contact present and / or past employers of the authors.

10. The “Plagiarism Standing Committee” will submit its report with clear cut findings and recommendations to the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization within a specified period not exceeding sixty days. The Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization will have the discretion to implement the recommendations after approval through the statutory process and take punitive action against the offender as per penalties prescribed under this policy or to forward the report to HEC or his / her parent organization for further action if outside their purview / jurisdiction.
Penalties for Plagiarism

11. Plagiarism is an intellectual crime. As such the penalties for plagiarism should not only take into account the severity and recurrence of the offence, but also the intellectual standing of the offender. This entails a gradual increase in punitive action with minimum punishment for a first time offence by a student who copies a home work assignment to a maximum punishment for a teacher/researcher/staff who attempts to present / publish, or actually presents / publishes plagiarized material; as his own, in a conference / journal. Therefore, the punishments for Plagiarism have been divided into two separate categories, i.e those for “Teachers, Researchers and Staff” and those for the “Students”. The groups have already been defined in para 5 above.
(a) Penalties for Teachers, Researchers and Staff: When an act of plagiarism, as described earlier in paras 2 and 3, is found to have occurred, the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” in its recommendations, DEPENDING UPON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE PROVEN OFFENCE, will advise the Competent Authority of the Organization, to take any one or a combination of the following disciplinary action(s) against the teacher, researcher and / or staff found guilty of the offence:
(i) Major Penalty:
In cases where most of the paper (or key results) have been exactly copied from any published work of other people without giving the reference to the original work, then (a) a major penalty of dismissal from service needs to be prescribed, along with (b) the offender may be “Black Listed” and may NOT be eligible for employment in any academic / research organization, and (c) the notification of “Black Listing” of the author(s) may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor / Rector / Head of the organization.
(ii) Moderate Penalty:
In case where some paragraphs including some key results have been copied without citation, then a moderate penalty involving any one or both of the following needs to be imposed (a) demotion to the next lower grade, (b) the notification of “Black Listing” of the author(s) which may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor / Rector / Head of the organization.
(iii) Minor Penalty:
In case a few paragraphs have been copied from an external source without giving reference of that work, then minor penalties need to be prescribed for a specified period involving any one or more of the following: (a) warning, (b) freezing of all research grants, (c) the promotions/annual increments of the offender may be stopped, for a specified period and (d) HEC or the University / Organization may debar the offender from sponsorship of research funding, travel grant, supervision of Ph.D. students, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded program for a period as deemed appropriate by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(b) Students: When an act of plagiarism, as described earlier in paras 2 and 3, is found to have occurred, the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” in its recommendations, DEPENDING UPON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE PROVEN OFFENCE, will advise the Vice Chancellor / Head of the Organization, to take any one or a combination of the following disciplinary action(s) against the student(s) found guilty of the offence:
(i) In the case of thesis the responsibility of plagiarism will be of the student and not of the supervisor or members of the Supervisory Committee.
(ii) The offender may be expelled/ rusticated from the University and from joining any institution of Higher Education in Pakistan for a period as deemed appropriate by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”. A notice may be circulated among all academic institutions and research organization to this effect.
(iii) The offender may be relegated to a lower class.
(iv) The offender may be given a failure grade in the subject.
(v) The offender may be fined an amount as deemed appropriate.
(vi) The offender may be given a written warning if the offence is minor and is committed for the first time.
(vii) The degree of a student may be withdrawn if AT ANY TIME it is proven that he or she has presented Plagiarized work in his / her MS, MPhil or PhD dissertation if the extent of plagiarism comes under the category of major penalty as conveyed in Para 11(a-1).
(viii) The notification of the plagiarism by the author(s) may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization.
(ix) HEC or the University / Organization may debar the offender from sponsorship of research funding, travel grant, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded program for a period as deemed appropriate by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(x) Any other penalty deemed fit by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(c) Co-Authors/Declarations

12. Provided that a co-author has listed a paper in his/her resume and applied for a benefit forthwith, any co-author is deemed to be equally responsible for any plagiarism committed in a published paper presented to or published in a journal or presented at a conference.

13. All Journals in Pakistan must require ALL authors to sign a declaration that the material presented in the creative work is not plagiarized (Sample Attached)

14. Additional Actions Required: In addition to the above punishments, the following additional common actions must be taken if the offence of Plagiarism is established:
a) If the plagiarized paper is accessible on the web page its access will be removed. The paper itself will be kept in the database for future research or legal purposes.
b) The author(s) will be asked to write a formal letter of apology to the authors of the Original paper that was plagiarized, including an admission of plagiarism. Should the author(s) refuse to comply then additional punishments as deemed fit may be recommended by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee.
c) If the paper is submitted but not published yet, the paper will be rejected by the Editor-in-Chief or the Program Chair without further revisions and without any further plagiarism investigation conducted.[1]
However, Warning may be issued to the author/ co-author.

15. Appeal: As the penalties are severe, the affected person(s) will have the right to appeal to the Chairman HEC / Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization for a review of the findings or may submit a mercy petition within 30 days from the date of notification. Such appeals / petitions will be disposed off within 60 days of receipt, by following the laid down procedures regarding such appeals.

16. Penalty for Wrong Reporting/False Allegation: If the case of Plagiarism is not proved and it is confirmed that a false allegation was lodged, the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization will inform the complainant’s Organization and will recommend disciplinary action against the complainant, to be taken by his / her parent organization.
References
[1] “ACM (Association of Computing Machinery) Policy on Plagiarism” (http://www.acm.org/pubs/plagiarism%20policy.html)
[2] “Academic Integrity Statement: Appendix1” (University of Southampton Calendar 2006/7) (http://www.calendar.soton.ac.uk/sectionIV/part8a.html)
[3] “Plagiarism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/plagiarism).
(Sample)
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION OF PAKISTAN
(Monograph & Textbook Writing Scheme)
Monograph / Textbook Proposal Submission Undertaking*
Corresponding Author(s) name: _______________________
Corresponding Author(s) Address: ______________________
Title of Work: _______________________
The Higher Education Commission (Publisher) and the Monograph/Textbook Proposal Author (Authors if a multi-authored Work) agree as the following:

17. The Monograph/Book will contain the original Work of author(s).

18. It will not violate copyright or intellectual property right of any person or entity.

19. It will not contain previously published material in whole or in part for which permission from the concerned parties has not been secured.

20. The author(s) recognize that if any material submitted for consideration to the HEC is found to be plagiarized, then the HEC may bar the author(s) from participating in all HEC Programs and public notice to the fact maybe issued in print as well as electronic media. The HEC reserves the right to recover all amounts spent on evaluation/publication etc., and also may take any other action deemed necessary to serve as deterrence against plagiarism.

21. The author(s) shall indemnify and hold the Publisher harmless against loss or expenses arising from breach of any such warranties.

22. In consideration of the HEC’s agreement to publish the Work, the author(s) hereby grants HEC a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to print, publish, reproduce or distribute the Work throughout the world by all means of expression, including electronic format. The author(s) further grants HEC the right to use the author’s name in association with the Work in published form and in promotional materials.

23. The copyrights are duly reserved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.
All authors are requested to sign this form. If not signed by all authors, the corresponding author acknowledges that s/he is signing on behalf of all the authors and with their authorization. Faxed signatures and multiple forms are acceptable provided the corresponding author collates all the material and submits in one batch.
Author Signature: ____________________ Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________
Author Signature: ____________________ Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________
Author Signature: ____________________ Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________
Publisher Signature: __________________ Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________

  • Similar Schemes could be developed for authors or thesis etc

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Syed Muhammad Ali is a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. Pakistan. He is widely published, interviewed and quoted on geopolitical, strategic, nuclear and security issues, both nationally and internationally. He is a frequent participant in various international Track-2 engagements and regular commentator at policy forums, thinks tank and universities on strategic and nuclear issues. Earlier, he has taught Dimensions of Modern Strategy, Foreign Policy Analysis and Comparative Politics at the National Defence University and served as a Course Coordinator and member of the NDU disciplinary committee. He designed and introduced over 30 new courses, which are currently being taught at M.Sc, M.Phil and PhD levels and also reviewed Higher Education Commission’s curriculum of International Relations. He also teaches at the Foreign Service Academy of Pakistan and has a rich and diverse international exposure of both government and multinational organizations. Earlier, he has served as a correspondent at the Voice of America at its Washington, D.C headquarters and Pakistan Television Ltd., Islamabad, respectively. He has also served as Controller at the Cross Media Ltd., a London-based Japanese media company and auditor/consultant at the PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), world’s largest consultancy firm. His diverse portfolio at the PwC included some of the world’s leading energy giants like Shell, Schlumberger, OMV, Premier Oil, large telecom companies such as Ericsson, PTCL and private organizations such as Agha Khan Foundation and GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology.

Dr. Mansoor Ahmed
Advisory Board Member of CISS Insight
Senior Research Fellow
mansoor.dss@gmail.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Dr. Mansoor Ahmed was Senior Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan. He is a former Stanton Junior Faculty Fellow (2015-16) and Postdoctoral Research Fellow (2016-18) with the Managing the Atom Project/International Security Program at the Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center. He was also an MTA Associate for 2018-2019.

Previously, he was a Visiting Research Scholar at the Cooperative Monitoring Center, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, N.M., USA in 2013.

He has also served as a Lecturer in the Department of Defence and Strategic Studies (DSS), Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU), Islamabad from 2011 to 2015, and as Visiting Faculty in the Department of Strategic and Nuclear Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad from 2009-2011.

Before joining the academia, he worked in the Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service from July 2003 to January 2011.

Dr. Ahmed holds a PhD in International Relations from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. His research interests include various aspects of Pakistani and Indian nuclear programs and policies; fissile materials, non-proliferation, arms control and strategic stability issues with special reference to South Asia. His research work has been published by the Belfer Center, the Stimson Center, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the US Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.

Mr Zawar Haider Abidi
Senior Research Fellow
zawarabidi@live.com
+92-331-546-9447
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mr Zawar Haider Abidi is a former military officer. He has served in Pakistan Army for over 26 years on various assignments. He has also served in Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Branch Strategic Plans Division, secretariat of the Pakistan National Command Authority from October 2001 to Nov 2012. He has been a visiting fellow at the Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington D.C, USA (2003), and a visiting fellow at the James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies, Monterey, California, USA. (2010).

He has been an expert consultant supporting United Nation Security Council (UNSC) 1540 Committee for a period of five years from November 2012 to Nov 2017 to monitor the implementation of UNSC resolution 1540 by the UN Member States.

While in Pakistan Army he has been on the faculty of number of training institutions. In Arms Control and Disarmament Branch SPD he has worked on issues related to non-proliferation, arms control, strategic trade management, research and outreach. He has been part of inter-agency groups responsible for, drafting Pakistan’s Export Control Act 2004, designing and establishment of Strategic Export Control Division of Pakistan, compilation of Pakistan’s National Control List and an inter-agency group developing the architecture for deployment of Radiological Portal Monitors on all land, air and sea border crossing for exercising effective border control. Zawar Haider Abidi has served as visiting faculty at the Defence and Strategic Studies Department at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (2008). He has participated in number of international conferences, seminars and workshops on non-proliferation and strategic trade management.

Due to his stay at United States as an Expert Consultant supporting UNSC 1540 Committee he has a unique experience in implementation of WMD non-proliferation in general and UNSC resolution 1540 in particular, at the global level. He has participated in number of international conferences, seminars and workshops on non-proliferation and strategic trade management. He has an in-depth understanding and knowledge of implementing laws and regulations with regard to CWC, BWC, NPT and their means of delivery of twenty-three UN Member States of Asian Region including the SAARC Member States.

Dr. Syed Javaid Khurshid
Senior Research Fellow
Member Advisory Board CISS Insight Journal
sjavaidk@gmail.com
+92-314-510-6666
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Dr. Syed Javaid Khurshid was Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS). His special interest is in Nuclear Knowledge Management, Nuclear Energy, Climate Change, and Nuclear Techniques for achieving SDGs, Science, Nuclear, and BioDiplomacy. His expertise is in the Mitigation and Control of CBRN. He is Secretary National Member Organization, IIASA Laxenburg, Austria. He is Member Technical Committee of HEC-MoFA Internal Compliance Committee on Export Control Laws. Dr. Javaid is a Fellow of the Chemical & Nuclear Society of Pakistan and also served as President of Pakistan Nuclear Society from 2016-2018.

Dr. Javaid is an approved Ph.D. supervisor of the Higher Education Commission (HEC). He is a member of Editorial/Advisory Board of the Journal of Center for International Strategic Studies, Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefence, Journal of Security & Strategic Analyses and Global Affairs Magazine. He is also an Associate Editor of the Journal of JPMS, USA. He has 73 publications in international/national journals, 12 international proceedings, 02 National Guidelines, 15 research reports, 25 articles, 66 presentations. He is listed as Productive Scientists of Pakistan with an Impact Factor of 196 and Google Scholar Citation of 220. He has been a visiting faculty at several Pakistani Universities.

Dr. Javaid worked for Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for 40 years in different capacities as Consultant/Advisor/Director General/Director of Planning, Development & Projects Coordination, Director Biosciences. As Director Biosciences from 1999-2006 he has developed 9 cancer hospitals. He is an expert on Project Planning, Preparation, Management, Monitoring & Evaluation. He was Project Director of Development and Monitoring cell at P&D. He was Director at Large of Planning Management Institute, PA USA (Islamabad Chapter). 

He was a member of the Inter-ministerial committee of Biological Weapon Control MoFA, Government of Pakistan. Presented Pakistan as a technical expert to UN meetings on Biological Weapon Convention (BWC) and a State Party representative to UN on BWC meetings & helped in making the legislation on dual-use products.

He worked as an Executive Secretary of prestigious Abdus Salam International Nathiagali Summer College from 2006-2016 and Founder Member of Friends of ICTP. He helped disseminate knowledge & motivate research teams by arranging College every year on Cutting Edge Technologies with the support of Abdus Salaam International Centre of Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, US-National Science Foundation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Centre of European Nuclear Research (CERN).

Brigadier (Retired) Dr. Naeem Salik
Editor in Chief
Senior Research Fellow
naeemsalik@gmail.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Brigadier (Retired) Dr. Naeem Salik is a Ph.D. in Political Science and International Relations from the University of Western Australia. He holds a Master’s in International Politics and Strategic Studies from the University of Wales, UK and a Master’s in History from the Punjab University. He has been a visiting fellow at the Stimson Centre, Stanford University, Brookings Institution and School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.

He has served in the Pakistan Army in a variety of assignments for 33 years including a fairly long tenure as Director Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs at the Strategic Plans Division. He has taught post-graduate courses at the Department of Defence & Strategic Studies at the Quaid-i-Azam University from 1994 to 2005. He also taught Masters and M Phil courses at the Strategic & Nuclear Studies Department at National Defence University, Islamabad.

He has attended numerous international conferences and track-2 initiatives and has published over 30 research articles and book chapters on strategic and security issues. His book ‘Genesis of South Asian Nuclear Deterrence’ was published by the Oxford University Press in 2009. His second book on “Learning to Live with The Bomb – Pakistan 1998-2016” came out in 2017 and is a valuable addition to the subject. He is working as a Senior Research Fellow at CISS, Islamabad.

Mr. Iftikhar Uddin Hasan
Editor
Research Coordinator
idhasan84@yahoo.com
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Iftikhar Uddin Hasan was the Editor of biannual journal of the center CISS Insight. He is also the Research Coordinator at the center. Apart from his editorial responsibilities, he also supervises and guides researchers to ensure that work done by the research team meet the necessary requirements.

He has an experience of working as the Editor of Pakistan Army Journal and Pakistan Defence Review, published by Pakistan Army for over three years. Hasan has a long teaching experience in Pakistan’s military institutions spread over several decades. He also has to his credit the establishment and management of a school system for low-paid industrial workers in the KPK.

Mr Yasir Mehmood
A.D Finance & Administration / H.R Coordinator
yasir.mehmood@ciss.org.pk, yasirmah85@yahoo.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mr. Yasir Mehmood was Active Director (AD) Finance & Administration / H.R Coordinator at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan, where he deals with administration matters, human resource and financial reports and responsible for  audit, monitoring, upgrading and tax compliance. He has experience of different projects as research associate, an organizer of SME and Entrepreneurship, Participated as a presenter in Marketing Presentation Gala (MPG) and also organized 3rd National Universities of Modern Languages (NUML) job fair.

Mr. Mehmood holds Masters in Business Administration. His career appointment includes Soneri Bank Limited, as an Operation Officer, Askari Bank Limited as a Personal Financial Consultant. His areas of specialization are: Branch Banking, Commercial Banking, Credit Analysis, Risk Management, Employee Orientation, Operational Excellence, Organizational Charts management, Employee Relations, Development & Implementation of Accounts, Administration and HR Policies and Procedures. He is currently pursuing his M.Phil in Management Sciences.

Ms Tooba Rizwan
Research Intern
Tooba_rizwan1997@hotmail.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms Tooba Rizwan was Research Intern at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). She is a student of Bachelors in Strategic Studies at National Defence University, Islamabad. Her research interests include the Global Non-Proliferation Regime & US-China geopolitics with special focus on their implications on South Asia.

Ms. Summaiya Malik
Research Assistant
summaiyamalik.sm@gmail.com
+92-332-091-4642
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms. Summaiya Malik is a Research Assistant at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). She holds an MPhil degree in International Relations from National Defense University, Islamabad and has previously worked under ISSRA, NDU as a researcher. Her research interests are peaceful use of nuclear technology, Strategic stability in South Asia, Foreign and Defense Policy Affairs of Pakistan. She has published on various contemporary issues in CGSS Writer’s Column.

Dr Rahat Iqbal
Associate Director Research
rahat.iqbal@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Dr Rahat Iqbal is Associate Director Research at the Center for International Strategic Studies, Islamabad. She has pursued her doctorate in the field of strategic studies from department of International Relations, University of Peshawar. Besides her doctorate she has also gained sufficient experience in project/program design, planning, research, monitoring and evaluation in both humanitarian, health, education and development scenarios.  Apart from that she has excellent interpersonal, communication, motivational, conflict management and resolution skills with informed decision-making abilities. She has her interest in the areas of nuclear studies, arms control and disarmament, foreign policy, strategic studies, national security etc.

Mr Muhammad Ali Baig
Research Officer
alibaig@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mr Baig holds a Masters degree in Defence and Strategic Studies from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. He has research experience at Pak-Afghan Youth Forum (PAYF), Kashmir Institute of International Relations (KIIR), Islamabad and Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR), Rawalpindi. His experiences are related to domestic and international security, foreign policy, fifth-generation warfare and global human rights practices.

He has multiple publications on various issues such as Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, arms control and disarmament, Indian military modernization, emerging technologies and their impact on conventional and nuclear deterrence.

Mr. Syed Ali Abbas
Research Officer/Media Officer/Managing Editor CISS Insight
aliabbas@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Syed Ali Abbas is Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad, Pakistan. He is also the Co-Founding Editor of Global Defense Insight, an online defense media forum. Previously, Syed worked as associate editor at Indus News Network. His area of interests are Middle East Politics, Foreign Policy, and Nuclear Politics.  He writes on various platforms in areas of his interests.

Mr Fakhar Alam
Research Officer
fakharalam@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mr. Fakhar Alam is Research Officer at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. He holds a bachelor’s (BS) degree in Strategic and Nuclear Studies from National Defence University, Islamabad. Before joining CISS, he has been an intern at the Institute of Regional Studies (IRS), Islamabad. His research interests are Arms control and Disarmament, Non-Proliferation Regime, South Asian Strategic Stability and Revolution in Military Affairs.

Saliha Mehboob
Ms. Saliha Mehboob
Research Officer
saliha.mehboob@gmail.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Saliha Mehboob is working with Center for International Security Studies (CISS). She holds an MPhil degree from the department of School of Politics and International Relations, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. Her MPhil thesis is hinged on ‘Environmental Politics, Regimes and Global Governance’. Previously, she was engaged with diverse research undertakings being a part of Senate Secretariat and academia. Apart from other domains of International Relations, she is keen to dive head-first into research ventures along the lines of Nuclear and Strategic Stability, Emerging Technologies, Nuclear Regimes and Cartels, Non-Traditional Security Threats, Economics of Defence.

Mr Mobeen Jafar Mir
Research Officer
mobeenjafar@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mobeen Jafar Mir is Research Officer at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad, Pakistan (2022-Present). He holds a Master’s Degree in International Relations from National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. Prior to joining CISS, he served as Research Assistant at Islamabad Policy Institute (IPI). His research areas include Pakistan’s foreign policy, defence, emerging non-traditional security threats and human rights. He regularly writes for national and international newspapers.

Mr Murad Ali
Research Officer
muradali@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Murad Ali is Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. He received his M.Phil in international relations from the University of Peshawar and M.S. in international relations from the National Defence University Islamabad. Prior to joining CISS, he worked as a lecturer in the University of Swabi’s department of peace and conflict studies, where he is credited for establishing international relations as a distinct field of study under the purview of the department of peace and conflict studies. His research work focuses on international security, strategic stability, nuclear studies, foreign policy, and weapons control and disarmament.

Mr Abdul Moiz Khan
Research Officer
moizkhan@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Abdul Moiz Khan works with CISS as Research Officer. He previously worked as Research and Teaching Assistant at School of Politics and IR, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. He has Bachelors in Political Science from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. He also wrote research articles for BASIC, UK based think tank. His research interests include Emerging Technologies, Strategic Stability, Military Modernization, Strategic Doctrine and South Asia.

Dr Muhammadi
Associate Director Research
muhammadi@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Dr. Muhammadi is Associate Director Research at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. He holds a Ph.D. in Politics & International Relations from the School of International Relations and Public Affairs (SIRPA), Shanghai International Studies University (SISU), Shanghai, PR China.

Before joining CISS, he served as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Politics and International Studies, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan. He has also served more than six years with the District Administration Department Government of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.

His research areas and interests include China-South Asia Relations, Belt & Road Initiative/CPEC, Non-Traditional Security, Foreign policy analysis, Pakistan’s Nuclear Program and Policy, Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology, and Emerging Technologies.

 His research articles have been published in international and national peer review journals. He also writes opinions/articles for various online platforms and dailies, including the National Interest, Daily Times, World Geostrategic Insights, Global Village Space (GVS), and Eurasia Review.

Ms Anum A. Khan
Associate Director Research
anumkhan@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms Anum A. Khan is Associate Director Research at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. She has worked with Pakistan’s Strategic Plans Division as an International Relations Analyst at the Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Branch. She is currently enrolled in Ph. D program of Defence and Diplomatic Studies at Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad and is a visiting Ph.D. scholar at the School of History, Politics and International Relations at the University of Leicester, UK. She holds an M.Phil Degree in Strategic and Nuclear Studies from National Defence University, Islamabad and BS (Hon’s) in Media and Communication Studies from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Her areas of interests include issues related to Deterrence and Strategic Stability, Non-Proliferation, Nuclear Export Control Cartels including Nuclear Suppliers Group, Arms Control and Disarmament.

Ms Amna Saqib
Research Officer
Managing Editor CISS Insight Journal
amnasaqib@ciss.org.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms Amna Saqib is Research Officer at the Centre for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad. She holds an M.Phil degree in International Relations from National Defense University (NDU), Islamabad. She has worked as Visiting Faculty member at SPIR, QAU Islamabad, and NDU, Islamabad and she has also been an intern at Arms Control Disarmament Affairs, Directorate of Pakistan’s Strategic Plan Division.  Her area of interests include Foreign Policies of Major Powers, International Security, Global Nuclear Politics and Nuclear Strategies. She contributes articles to the National dailies on issues of her interest.

Mr Muhammad Shakir
Senior Research Officer
Shakir86@msn.com
+92-314-522-9964
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Muhammad Shakir is Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). He holds M.Sc. degree in Strategic & Nuclear Studies, from the National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. His areas of interests include Arms Control & Disarmament, Nonproliferation of WMDs, and Nuclear Discourse in South Asia.

Mr Yasir Hussain
Associate Director Research
yasirhunzai1@gmail.com
+92-313-537-7441
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Yasir Hussain is serving as Associate Director Research at CISS. He holds an M. Phil Degree in International Relations from School of Politics and International Relations, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. Yasir is also a former South Asia Fellow at Stimson Center US, where he presented India and Pakistan’s cases for Nuclear Suppliers Group Membership. Prior to that, he has represented Pakistan in Turkey. He was offered Turkish President’s office of diplomacy fellowship. His research contributions have been published in leading national and international dailies including, The News, Express Tribune, China’s leading newspaper, Global Times and The Hill. His research areas include Nuclear Dynamics in South Asia and issues related to nuclear non-proliferation.

Ms Tooba Mansoor
Senior Research Officer
tooba.mansoor@yahoo.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms. Tooba Mansoor is Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). She holds M.Phil Degree in International Relations from Quaid–e–Azam University Islamabad. Her areas of interest are Arms Control & Disarmament, Nonproliferation and Counter Proliferation.

Ahsan Ali Zahid
Mr Ahsan Ali Zahid
Senior Research Officer
ahsanalizahid@ir.qau.edu.pk
+92-300-984-7029
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mr. Ahsan holds an M. Phil degree from the School of Politics and International Relations at the Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. His research interests are strategic studies, nuclear non-proliferation, modern warfare, and technology. His work has been published in many national and international newspapers, and magazines.

Mr Hasan Ehtisham
Senior Research Officer
hasanehtisham@yahoo.com
+92-322-571-5001
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Mr. Hasan Ehtisham is Research Fellow at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) Islamabad. He holds an M. Phil degree in Strategic Studies from QAU. His analytical research work contributes to the topics of geopolitics, terrorism, conflict resolution, military strategies, Pakistan’s nuclear strategy, non-proliferation regime, arms control, and disarmament.

Ms Tooba Ghaffar
Research Assistant
toobaghaffar@gmail.com
+92-000-000-0000
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Ms Tooba Ghaffar was Assistant Researcher at the Center. She holds a B.A.(Hons) in International Relations. Her primary interest area is Indo-Pak security relations with a special focus on the nuclear deterrence. Her undergrad research involved exploring nuclear deterrence with the lens of stability-instability paradox. She frequently writes on her subject for prominent newspapers.

Mr Sajid Aziz
Research Officer
Sajidazizbaloch@gmail.com
+92-51-2722343 | +92-51-8315410-423
+92-321-809-5623 | +92-332-133-3918

Mr Sajid Aziz was working as Research Officer at CISS. He holds a Master’s degree in Defense and Strategic Studies (DSS) from Quaid-I-Azam University. His Master’s seminar paper was “Oslo Accords: Prelude to a Durable Peace or Palestinian Capitulation?” His areas of interest include the politics of Middle East, security, strategic and foreign policy issues.

Dr Farooque Ahmed Leghari
Visiting Research Fellow
farooque.leghari@usindh.edu.pk
+92-51-2722343 +92-51-8315410-423

Dr Farooque Ahmed Leghari served as Visiting Research Fellow at Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS). He has recently finished his PhD in Strategic and Security Studies on “The role of nuclear deterrence in Pakistan’s strategic policy towards India” from School of History, Politics and Strategy, National University of Malaysia. He is presently serving as a lecturer at Department of International Relations at University of Sindh, Jamshoro, since April, 2010. Before joining the university, he had worked with Dawn News and SAMAA TV. He has various publications in international and Pakistani research journals to his credit. He frequently appears on electronic media and shares his analysis on international issues.

Ambassador Ali Sarwar Naqvi
Executive Director CISS
sarwarnaqvi@yahoo.com
+92-301-856-1240
+92-51-8315410-423

In a long diplomatic career of thirty six years, from 1970 to 2006, which culminated in senior Ambassadorial positions, he also served at the United Nations, both in New York and Vienna, and in Washington D.C, London, Paris and Brussels. In the course of professional work he delivered lectures and speeches on various current affairs issues in seminars, conferences and symposia in national and international forum. He also participates and appears on TV and electronic media, both in Pakistan and abroad. After serving as Pakistan’s Ambassador to Austria and the IAEA, he was appointed Member (Chairman’s Advisory Council) in the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and functioned as Adviser to the Chairman PAEC on International Affairs, with particular focus on IAEA matters.

Ambassador Naqvi is presently serving as the founding Executive Director of the Center. Established in October 2010, The Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS) is an independent and autonomous think-tank for research and analysis of current regional and international strategic issues from a Pakistani perspective. It also aims to contribute to the national and international discourse, and thus create greater understanding between Pakistan and other countries.

Other Engagements:

Serving as Distinguished Visiting Fellow (DVF) in the National Defence University, Islamabad since August 2010.

Associated with other Pakistani Research Institutes since November 2009.

Appointed Expert on the Technical Committee of the Department of Defense and Strategic Studies (DSS) of the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad in April 2009.